Hinduism and Tribal Religions

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffery D. Long, Rita D. Sherma, Pankaj Jain, Madhu Khanna


Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1036-5_614-1
The mention of Anubhava or Sattivika Bhavas is found in Chapter VI of Bharat Muni’s the Natyasastra. The story goes like that the great sages approached Bharata, and posed their queries on five issues namely:
  1. 1.

    What are the rasas of which the natya experts speak?

  2. 2.

    What constitutes a rasa?

  3. 3.

    What are the bhavas (emotions)?

  4. 4.

    What feelings do they (bhavas) convey?

  5. 5.

    What is sangraha (essence of contents), a karika, and a nirukta?

    (Natyasastra, 53)

To these questions, Bharata Muni replies in detail, and discusses the concept of Rasa and Bhava. To understand the concept of Anubhavas, an understanding of Bhava and Vibhava is a prerequisite because the Bhava, the Vibhava, and the Anubhava are interrelated. Bharata Muni mentions eight Rasas, namely Hasya (Laughter), Karuna (sorrow), Raudra (anger), Vira (heroism, courage), Bhayanaka (terror or fear), Bibhatsa (disgust), and Adbhuta (surprise/wonder). Shantha (peace or tranquility) is considered as the ninth Rasa. The Bhavasare of two...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.
    Bharatamuni: The Natyasastra (trans: Rangacharya A (1996)). Munshiram Manoharlal, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coomaraswamy A, Duggirala G (1917) The mirror of gesture being the Abhinaya Darpana (Translation of Nandikesvara’s Abhinaya Darpana). Harvadrd University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Horrwitz EP (1912) The Indian theatre: a brief history of Sanskrit drama. Blackie and Son Limited, London. Online available at: https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.102308/2015.102308.The-Indian-Theatre-Sanskrit-Drama_djvu.txtGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kantak VY (1988) Bharata and western concept of drama. In: Kushwaha MS (ed) Indian poetics and western thought. Argo, LucknowGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kapur A (2009) Lila. In: Lal A (ed) Theatres of India: a concise companion. OUP, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mehta T (1995) Sanskrit play production in ancient India. Motilal BanarsidassGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vatsyayan K (1980) The Ramayana and Ramlila. In: Traditional Indian theatre: multiple streams. National Book Trust India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of English and Modern European LanguagesUniversity of LucknowLucknowIndia