Hinduism and Tribal Religions

Living Edition
| Editors: Pankaj Jain, Rita Sherma, Madhu Khanna

Kāraikkāl Ammaiyār

  • Elaine Craddock
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1036-5_40-1



Kāraikkāl Ammaiyār, the “Mother/Woman from Kāraikkāl,” a town in the southeastern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, was arguably the earliest poet to write hymns in the Tamil language to the god Shiva, in approximately the mid-sixth century. She is regarded as the author of 143 devotional poems organized into four works: Aṟputat Tiruvantāti (“Sacred Linked Verses of Wonder”), with 101 veṇpā verses; Tiruviraṭṭai Maṇimālai (“The Sacred Garland of Double Gems”), with 20 stanzas alternating in veṇpā and kaṭṭalaik kalittuṟai; and the two patikams called Tiruvālaṅkāṭṭu Mūtta Tiruppatikaṅkaḷ (“First Sacred Verses on Tiruvālaṅkāṭu”), which are ten-verse poems with an eleventh “signature” verse each and which are set to music (some texts call the first patikam Tiruvālaṅkāṭṭu Mūtta Tiruppatikaṅkaḷ and the second patikam simply Tiruvālaṅkāṭṭu Tiruppatikaṅkaḷ or Sacred Verses on Tiruvālaṅkāṭu). These works are included in the eleventh book of the Tirumuṟai, the...

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ReligionSouthwestern UniversityGeorgetownUSA