Hinduism and Tribal Religions

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffery D. Long, Rita D. Sherma, Pankaj Jain, Madhu Khanna


Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-024-1036-5_391-1


Appar/Thirunavukkarasar (the former means “father” and the latter “the king of words”) was a seventh-century Tamil Saivite (devotees of Lord Siva) poet and saint. He was one of the prominent triad Saivite saints, the others being Sambandar (seventh century) and Sundarar (eighth century). The eleventh-century Saiva scholar and poet, Nambiyandar Nambi, compiled the hymns written by the triad Saivite poets and named it Tevaram. Tevaram comprises of the first seven volumes of Tirumurai (the twelve-volume anthology of hymns praising Siva). More hymns were added to Tevaram by various editors (poets themselves) to form the present Thirumurai. The first three parts of Tevaram were composed by Sambanthar, the next three by Appar, and the seventh by Sundarar [1].


Born in a peasant family belonging to Velaalar (also called Vellalar) caste, Appar’s parents, Pugazhanaar and Maathiniyaar, named him Marulneekkiyar. After his father’s death, his mother, Maathiniyaar, committed sati...

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Humanities and Social SciencesK. K. Birla Goa Campus Birla Institute of Technology and Science PilaniZuarinagarIndia