Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions

Living Edition
| Editors: Pedro Nuno Teixeira (Editor-in-Chief), Jung-Cheol Shin (Editor-in-Chief)

Academics and Higher Education Expansion

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_58-1

Many people associate the massification of higher education, which has become an inherent part to the educational landscape of many countries in the past decades (Schofer and Meyer 2005), primarily with the increase in enrolment rates. Indeed, according to Ulrich Teichler, “the term ‘mass higher education’ was traditionally employed to describe the growth of enrolment beyond the level of academic reproduction and training for a small number of occupations requiring this education for demanding professions and privileged social positions” (Teichler 1998, P. 19). At the same time, the impact of the massification goes beyond a mere growth in the number of young people with a higher education diploma. Massification has a significant effect on the academic profession, its substance, and, of course, the people who represent universities’ academic core.

What are the underlying factors behind this effect, and what does it mean in practice?

First of all, student numbers are growing. Faculty is...


High Education Faculty Member Academic Freedom Academic Career Temporary Contract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Altbach, Phillip G. 2011. Harsh realities: The professoriate in the twenty-first century. In American higher education in the twenty-first century: Social, political, and economic challenges, ed. Philip G. Altbach, Patricia J. Gumport, and Robert O. Berdahl, 227–253. Baltimore: JHU Press.Google Scholar
  2. Altbach, Phillip G. 2015. Building an academic career: The twenty-first-century challenge. In Young faculty in the twenty-first century. International perspectives, ed. Maria Yudkevich, Philip G. Altbach, and Laura Rumbley, 5–20. Albany: SUNY University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Altbach, Philip G., Gregory Androushchak, Ivan Pacheko, Maria Yudkevich, and Liz Reisberg. 2012. Paying the professoriate: A global comparison of compensation and contracts. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Altbach, Philip G., Gregory Androushchak, Yaroslav Kuzminov, Maria Yudkevich, and Liz Reisberg. 2013. The global future of higher education and the academic profession: The BRICs and the United States. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beerkens-Soo, Maarja, and Hans Vossensteyn. 2009. Higher education issues and trends from an international perspective. Report prepared for the Veerman Committee, Center for Higher Education Policy Studies, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  6. Coates, Hamish, Ian Dobson, Daniel Edwards, Tim Friedman, Leo Goedegebuure, and Lynn Meek. 2009. The attractiveness of the Australian academic profession: A comparative analysis. Camberwell: Australian Council for Educational Research.Google Scholar
  7. Finkelstein, Martin J., Valezie M. Conley, Jack H. Schuster. 2006. The faculty factor reassessing the American faculty in a turbulent Era. Baltimore: JHU Press.Google Scholar
  8. Gumport, Patricia, Maria Iannozzi, Susan Shaman, and Robert Zemsky. 1997. Trends in higher education from massification to post-massification, RIHE International Seminar Reports, No. 10, 57–93.Google Scholar
  9. Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah, Helena Šebková, and Ulrich Teichler. 2007. Massification and diversity of higher education systems: Interplay of complex dimensions. Higher Education Policy 20(4): 373–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kwiek, Marek. 2009. The changing attractiveness of European higher education: Current developments, future challenges, and major policy issues. In The European higher education area: Perspectives on a moving target, 107–124. Rotterdam/Boston/Taipei: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  11. Macfarlane, Bruce. 2011. The morphing of academic practice: Unbundling and the rise of the para-academic. Higher Education Quarterly 65(1): 59–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Musselin, Christine. 2007. The transformation of academic work: Facts and analysis. https://hal-sciencespo.archives-ouvertes.fr/file/index/docid/1066077/filename/escholarship-uc-item-5c10883g.pdf
  13. Schimank, Uwe. 2005. ‘New public management’ and the academic profession: Reflections on the German situation. Minerva 43(4): 361–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Schmidtlein, Frank A., and Robert O. Berdahl. 2011. Autonomy and accountability: Who controls academe. In American higher education in the twenty-first century: Social, political, and economic challenges, ed. Philip G. Altbach, Patricia J. Gumport, and Robert O. Berdahl, 69–87. Baltimore: JHU Press.Google Scholar
  15. Schofer, Evan, and John W. Meyer. 2005. The worldwide expansion of higher education in the twentieth century. American Sociological Review 70(6): 898–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Teichler, Ulrich. 1998. Massification: A challenge for institutions of higher education. Tertiary Education and Management 4(1): 17–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Teichler, Ulrich. 2001. Mass higher education and the need for new responses. Tertiary Education and Management 7(1): 3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Van Valey, Thomas L. 2001. Recent changes in higher education and their ethical implications. Teaching Sociology 29: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Whitchurch, Celia, and George Gordon. 2010. Diversifying academic and professional identities in higher education: Some management challenges. Tertiary Education and Management 16(2): 129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Research University Higher School of EconomicsMoscowRussia