Living Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions

pp 1-7

Date: Latest Version

Higher Education Expansion in Brazil, Russia, India, and China

  • Isak FrouminAffiliated withInstitute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics Email author 
  • , Daria PlatonovaAffiliated withInstitute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics


Massification of higher education


Growth of higher education system in absolute and relative numbers; increase of participation in higher education of relevant age cohort population.


Despite the differences in political, social, economic, and cultural histories, Brazil, Russia, India, and China share the common characteristics. The BRIC countries are very large in terms of population, territory, and economy. Each country has great economic and political influence in the regions, as well as dominance in education sphere (Altbach et al. 2013). They are emerging markets as their economies have been rapidly growing for the last decades while remaining lower middle income or upper middle income countries (World Bank 2016). The experience of these countries is critical for understanding the higher education system dynamics in large countries with limited resources.

Rapid Expansion

Higher education systems in BRIC are the largest after the USA. In total four countrie ...

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