Access to Higher Education, Affirmative Action

  • Bridget Terry Long
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_49-1

Synonyms

Definitions

Affirmative action refers to the use of preferences favoring individuals in a particular group when making a choice between candidates. In regards to higher education, it refers to preferences in admissions decisions, i.e., being more likely to choose students from a certain group over others, all else equal. Framed more broadly, affirmative action is a policy focused on creating differential processes or applying different standards in order to promote more equal access to higher education opportunity. The preferences that receive the most attention are those for specific racial or ethnic groups, but affirmative action policies could alternatively be tailored to favor other student traits, such as low-income status (i.e., “economic” affirmative action). Additionally, college admissions committees have been shown to show preferences for students with legacy status (having a parent or other relative who has attended the institution),...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Aguinis, H., S.A. Culpepper, and C.A. Pierce. 2016. Differential prediction generalization in college admissions testing. Journal of Educational Psychology 108: 1045–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bettinger, Eric P., Brent J. Evans, and Devin G. Pope. 2013. Improving college performance and retention the easy way: Unpacking the ACT exam. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 5 (2): 26–52.Google Scholar
  3. Bound, John, Brad Hershbein, and Bridget T. Long. 2009. Student reactions to increasing college competition. Journal of Economic Perspectives 23 (4): 119–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowen, William G., Martin A. Kurzweil, and Eugene M. Tobin. 2005. Equity and excellence in American higher education. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bridgeman, Brian, Laura McCamley-Jenkins, and Nancy Ervin. 2000. Predictions of freshman grade-point average from the revised and recentered SAT I: Reasoning test, Research report 2000-1. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.Google Scholar
  6. Cancian, Maria. 1998. Race-based versus class-based affirmative action in college admissions. Journal of Policy Analysis & Management 17 (1): 94–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deshpande, A. 2006. Affirmative action in India and the United States. In Equity & development: World development report. Washington, DC: The World Bank, Background Papers.Google Scholar
  8. Gupta, A. 2006. Affirmative action in higher education in India and the US: A study in contrast. Berkley: Center for Studies in Higher Education, University of California.Google Scholar
  9. Horn, C., and S. Flores. 2003. Percent plans in college admissions: A comparative analysis of three states’ experiences. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Civil Rights Project.Google Scholar
  10. Hoxby, Caroline M., and B.T. Long. 1999. Explaining rising income and wage inequality among the college-educated. Cambridge, MA: working paper no. 6873.Google Scholar
  11. Hurlburt, Steven, and Rita J. Kirshstein. 2012. Spending: Where does the money go? Washington, DC: The Delta Cost Project at American Institutes for Research.Google Scholar
  12. Kain, J., and D. O’Brien. 2003. Hopwood and the top 10 percent law. Cecil and Ida Green Center for the Study of Science and Society, Working Paper, University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas.Google Scholar
  13. Kane, T.J. 1998. Racial and ethnic preferences in college admissions. In The black-white test score gap, ed. C. Jencks and M. Phillips, 431–456. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  14. Long, B.T., and Laura Kavazanjian. 2012. Affirmative action in tertiary education: A meta-analysis of global policies and practices. World Bank report.Google Scholar
  15. Moses, M.S. 2010. Moral and instrumental rationales for affirmative action in five national contexts. Educational Researcher 39 (3): 211–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rothstein, Jesse M. 2004. College performance predictions and the SAT. Journal of Econometrics 121 (1–2): 297–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shaw, Emily J. 2015. An SAT validity primer. The College Board. Available at http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED558085.pdf
  18. Vigdor, Jacob, and Charles Clotfelter. 2003. Retaking the SAT. Journal of Human Resources 38 (1): 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Harvard Graduate School of EducationCambridgeUSA