Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions

Living Edition
| Editors: Pedro Nuno Teixeira (Editor-in-Chief), Jung-Cheol Shin (Editor-in-Chief)

Academic Profession, Higher Education

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9553-1_290-2



persons professionally active in the generation, discussion, preservation and dissemination of systematic knowledge through teaching and research within the frame of higher education Institutions and research institutes.

Terms and Concepts

Scholars are conceived to be persons characterized by a high intellectual caliber, being active in the generation, discussion, preservation, and dissemination of systematic knowledge. The somewhat narrower term “academic profession” suggests that these activities are undertaken for most of the period of the adult life-span, are distinct from those in the center of other occupations, and as a rule serve to secure livelihood. Finally, these activities are assumed to be undertaken as a rule in the framework of universities or – more widely defined – institutions of higher or tertiary education.

Generation and dissemination knowledge as well as its utilization in various ways are the tasks of many...


High Education High Education Institution Managerial Power Academic Freedom Advanced Country 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INCHER-KasselUniversity of KasselKasselGermany