Corruption in Higher Education
In addition to the very common definition from Transparency International, a nongovernmental organization working on corruption worldwide, “the abuse of entrusted power for private gain,” corruption in higher education can also be defined as “the lack of academic integrity.” This definition applies for both types of higher education institutions – public and private – because they both offer education, which is a public good. Corruption might be both perceived and not; the differentiation in higher education is, however, less important: “when the institution is perceived to be corrupt the damage is already done, regardless of whether guilt is manifest” (Heyneman 2013, p. 103). Corruption in higher education might happen with or without student involvement, though both types can influence young people either directly or indirectly (Denisova-Schmidt et al. 2016a).
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