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Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) as a Biomarker of Bone Disease

  • Bongkun Choi
  • Eun-Ju ChangEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series (BDMDA)

Abstract

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is the prototype protein of the long pentraxin group and a critical component of innate immunity. PTX3 is produced by various types of cells in response to proinflammatory signals and Toll-like receptor engagement. Albeit the protective functions of PTX3 in several infection, the persistent elevation in PTX3 levels is associated with disease severity and increased morbidity in diverse clinical pathological conditions such as psoriasis, unstable angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart disorders. However, the presence of PTX3 in bone-related cells and the role of PTX3 in bone-associated diseases have not been well elucidated. Osteoblasts derived from bone marrow stromal cells highly express PTX3. PTX3 induces production of receptor activator of NFkB ligand (RANKL) from osteoblasts, thereby contributing to the osteolysis as an inflammatory mediator in the bone environment. Moreover, PTX3 expression is elevated in the distant bone metastases of breast cancer, and PTX3 plays a key role in the inflammation-associated osteolytic complications of breast cancer. Here, we review the key properties of PTX3 as a mediator of bone pathogenesis, with an emphasis on PTX3 as a prototypic member of the long pentraxin family and recent data suggesting that persistently elevated PTX3 may represent a new and useful biomarker for clinical outcomes in bone pathologic condition.

Keywords

PTX3 Bone Osteoblasts Osteoclasts RANKL Biomarker Inflammation Bone metastasis 

List of Abbreviations

AgP

Aggressive periodontitis

CKD

Chronic kidney disease

CMV

Cytomegalovirus

CRP

C-reactive protein

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

KO

Knockout

M-CSF

Macrophage-colony-stimulating factor

OB

Osteoblast

OC

Osteoclast

PTX3

Pentraxin 3

RANKL

Receptor activator of NFkB ligand

Runx2

Runt-related transcription factor 2

SAP

Serum amyloid P component

siRNA

Small interfering RNA

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical CenterSeoulRepublic of Korea

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