Analysis of Integrin Alpha2Beta12β1) Expression as a Biomarker of Skeletal Metastasis

  • Christopher L. HallEmail author
  • Evan T. KellerEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series (BDMDA)


Skeletal metastasis is a frequent and debilitating end product of tumor progression affecting roughly a third of cancer patients within the USA. Tumor growth within the bone uncouples normal bone remodeling which leads to a net loss or gain of bone. These cancer-induced bone changes compromise the integrity of the skeleton and may cause pathologic fracture, severe pain, nerve compression, and metabolic imbalances. Therefore, to improve patient outcome, the identification of tumor cell markers with which to accurately predict skeletal metastasis potential is needed. The integrin family of adhesion molecules is a class of cell surface receptors that facilitate cell attachment to the extracellular matrix and promote cancer metastasis. The present chapter is focused on current literature evidence supporting that integrin α2β1 is both a mediator and predictive marker of metastasis, particularly metastasis to the skeleton.


Prostate cancer Skeleton Metastasis Integrin Collagen 

List of Abbreviations


Aldehyde dehydrogenase


Integrin alpha2beta1


Benign prostatic hyperplasia


Breast cancer

Col I

Collagen type I


Disseminated tumor cell


Focal adhesion kinase


Growth arrest-specific 6






Integrin-linked kinase


Jun N-terminal kinase


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Matrix metalloproteinase


Mouse mammary tumor virus


Messenger ribonucleic acid


Neuroblastoma-derived oncogene homology


Prostate cancer


Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase


Prostate-specific antigen


Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate


Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid

Rho GTPase

Ras homology guanosine-5′-triphosphatase


Severe combined immunodeficiency


Small hairpin ribonucleic acid


Rous sarcoma virus homology proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase


Transforming growth factor beta


Tissue microarray


Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor


Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1


Very late antigen-2



Supported in part by grants from the Department of Defense PC094375 (to CLH), National Institutes of Health UL1RR024986, and National Cancer Institute Grant P01 CA093900 (to ETK).


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Massachusetts at AmherstAmherstUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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