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Bone Markers Throughout Sexual Development: Epidemiological Significance and Population-Based Findings

  • Raquel LucasEmail author
  • Ana MartinsEmail author
  • Teresa MonjardinoEmail author
  • Joana Caetano-LopesEmail author
  • João Eurico FonsecaEmail author
Reference work entry
  • 861 Downloads
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series (BDMDA)

Abstract

Bone markers are used in adults to predict fracture risk and to monitor anabolic or catabolic therapies. Much less is known about their usefulness during childhood and adolescence when, besides remodeling, bone markers also reflect modeling and linear growth of the skeleton. Adolescence is a sensitive period for bone health during which a substantial proportion of bone mass is accrued. Therefore, it is important to understand the significance of bone markers at this stage, mainly in identifying individuals at increased risk of bone fragility. Sections of this chapter focus on the trajectories of bone markers during sexual development, as well as their normative values, determinants, and clinical significance. In general, both resorption and formation markers peak at puberty, decreasing from this point onward. In girls, peak metabolism rate occurs earlier and decreases faster than in boys. In both genders, markers are weakly associated with bone physical properties. Few studies have addressed modifiable determinants of bone markers, and the effect of behaviors on bone metabolism is far from consensual. Some successful attempts have been made to use bone markers in the clinical setting to diagnose and monitor pediatric diseases. Today, even though the measurement of bone markers in children and adolescents can be useful in the clinical setting, lack of standardized methods for determination still limits their widespread use.

Keywords

Bone markers Remodeling Modeling Growth Sexual development Adolescent Bone density Fracture Cohort studies 

List of Abbreviations

BALP

Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase

BMC

Bone mineral content

BMD

Bone mineral density

CTX-I

Cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen

DXA

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

ECLIA

Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EPITeen study

Epidemiological Health Investigation of Teenagers in Porto

ICMA

Immunochemiluminometric assay

ICTP

C-Terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen

IRMA

Immunoradiometric assay

NTX

Cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen

OC

Osteocalcin

OPG

Osteoprotegerin

PBM

Peak bone mass

PICP

Procollagen type I carboxy terminal propeptide

PINP

Procollagen type I amino terminal propeptide

RANK

Receptor activator of nuclear factor kB

RANKL

Receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand

RIA

Radioimmunoassay

TRACP

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Henrique Barros and Elisabete Ramos (ISPUP, Portugal) for the scientific coordination of the EPITeen cohort study and Isabel Maia for her contribution to this chapter.

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EPIUnit - Institute of Public Health of the University of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Predictive Medicine and Public HealthUniversity of Porto Medical SchoolPortoPortugal
  3. 3.Rheumatology Research Unit, Instituto de Medicina MolecularFaculdade de Medicina da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  4. 4.Rheumatology DepartmentLisbon Academic Medical CenterLisbonPortugal

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