Biomarkers of Natural Radionuclides in the Bone and Teeth

Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries, and Applications
  • Basim A. AlmayahiEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series (BDMDA)


This study aimed to estimate the radioactive accumulation of the radionuclides (40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th) and the radiobiological analysis of natural alpha emitters in extracted human teeth and animal bones. The natural radionuclides were measured by high-purity germanium spectroscopy and CR-39 alpha-particle track detector in extracted human teeth and animal bones, from people and animals living in different states in the Northern Malaysian Peninsula. The average 40K, 137Cs, 210Pb, 226Ra, 228Ra, and 228Th concentrations in teeth were found to be 12.31 ± 7.27 Bq g−1, 0.48 ± 0.21 Bq g−1, 0.56 ± 0.21 Bq g−1, 0.55 ± 0.23 Bq g−1, 1.82 ± 1.28 Bq g−1, and 0.50 ± 0.14 Bq g−1, respectively. The corresponding concentrations on bones were found to be 3.79 ± 0.81 Bq g−1, 0.07 ± 0.02 Bq g−1, 0.08 ± 0.02 Bq g−1, 0.16 ± 0.04 Bq g−1, 0.51 ± 1.08 Bq g−1, and 0.06 ± 0.02 Bq g−1, respectively. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations on teeth from smokers were higher than those in nonsmokers. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in female teeth than in male teeth. The values of radionuclides in teeth decreased in order 40K > 228Ra > 226Ra and 210Pb > 228Th > 137Cs. The corresponding radionuclide concentrations were higher in teeth than in bones. Significant positive correlations between p < 0.01 were found between the radionuclides in bones and teeth.

The lowest and highest alpha emission rates in teeth in the Kedah and Perak states were 0.0080 ± 0.0005 mBq cm−2 and 0.061 ± 0.008 mBq cm−2, whereas those of bones in the Perlis and Kedah states were 0.0140 ± 0.0001 mBq cm−2 and 0.7700 ± 0.0282 mBq cm−2, respectively. The alpha emission rate for male teeth was 0.0209 ± 0.0008 mBq cm−2, whereas that of female teeth was 0.0199 ± 0.0010 mBq cm−2. The alpha emission rate for teeth is higher in smokers (0.0228 ± 0.0008 mBq cm−2) than in nonsmokers (0.0179 ± 0.0008 mBq cm−2). Such difference was found statistically significant (p < 0.01).


Biomarkers Environmental radionuclides Natural alpha radioactivity CR-39 detector Gamma-ray Bones Teeth Smokers 

List of Abbreviations


Electron paramagnetic resonance


High-purity germanium


International Atomic Energy Agency


International Commission on Radiological Protection


Minimum detectable activity


Northern Malaysian Peninsular


Solid-state nuclear track detector


United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation


World Health Organization


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Science, Department of EnvironmentUniversity of KufaNajafIraq

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