Panoramic Radiomorphometric Indices of Mandible: Biomarker for Osteoporosis

  • Poornima GovindrajuEmail author
  • T. S. Mahesh KumarEmail author
  • Poornima ChandraEmail author
  • P. BalajiEmail author
  • M. B. SowbhagyaEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series (BDMDA)


Regressive changes occur in all the tissues of the body involving the bone, and osteoporosis is one of such change that is seldom diagnosed before the occurrence of fracture. Osteoporosis most of the time manifests in the maxillofacial region involving jaw bones. Radiographic bone density can be assessed from simple radiographs in two main ways: by taking linear measurements (morphometric analysis) or by measuring the optical density and comparing it with a step wedge (densitometric analysis). It has been proposed that osteopenia observed on panoramic radiographs could be used as a referral criterion for bone mineral density (BMD) assessment.

Panoramic radiography has been an important component of dental diagnostic radiology for over 40 years. It is a technique that produces an image of the teeth and jaws on a single film. Dental panoramic radiography accounts for 32% of all medical radiologic examinations in the United Kingdom, with approximately two million panoramic radiographs taken annually in National Health Service dental practices in England and Wales alone. So the incidental findings detected on panoramic radiographs of these patients can be used for the identification of women who have no awareness of their low BMD and who could benefit from BMD testing. Qualitative and quantitative panoramic indices, including the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), or panoramic mandibular index (PMI), have also been used for panoramic radiographs to assess the bone quality and to observe signs of resumption and osteoporosis.


Osteoporosis Panoramic radiographs Radiomorphometric indices Bone mineral density Mandibular cortical index Mental index Panoramic mandibular index 

List of Abbreviations


Antegonial index


Bone mineral density


Dual photon absorptiometry


Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry


Gonial index


Mandibular cortical index


Mental index/mandibular cortical width


Panoramic mandibular index


Quantitative computed tomography


Receptor activator of NF-kB ligand


Single photon absorptiometry


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral Medicine and RadiologyRajarajeswari Dental College and HospitalBangaloreIndia

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