Expression Profiling as Biomarkers in Colorectal Serrated Carcinoma

  • Mari Carmen Turpín Sevilla
  • José García Solano
  • Claudio Navarre
  • Miguel Pérez-Guillermo García
  • Ana Conesa
  • Pablo Conesa Zamora
Reference work entry
Part of the Biomarkers in Disease: Methods, Discoveries and Applications book series


Serrated adenocarcinoma (SC) is a recently recognized colorectal cancer (CRC) subtype, accounting for 7.2–9.2 % of CRC. SC has a worse prognosis than conventional carcinoma (CC) probably due to specific features at the invasive front including high-grade tumor budding and cytoplasmic pseudofragments, infiltrating growth pattern, and a weak peritumoral lymphocyte response. SCs also have a different profile of mutations in KRAS or BRAF oncogenes, expression of DNA repair proteins, and MSI status. Histological and immunohistochemical protein expression criteria have been proposed for SC diagnosis. Molecular profile studies have revealed that in agreement with previous observations, SCs have several cellular functions differentially regulated, such as hypoxia-, cytoskeleton-, vesicle transport-, and apoptosis-related pathways, among others. Expressions of several genes that participate in these pathways, like ephrin receptor B2, hippocalcin, and fascin1, have been proposed as biomarkers for differential SC diagnosis. miRNA expression and methylome signatures seem to corroborate these functions. All these findings suggest that the correct SC diagnosis may have important clinical implications and that the identified pathways and molecular targets could be exploited in the interest of SC specific patient follow-up and treatment.


Molecular profiling Colorectal cancer Serrated carcinoma Conventional carcinoma Microsatellite instability CpG island methylation phenotype 

List of Abbreviations and Genes



Conventional Carcinoma


CpG island Methylation Phenotype


Colorectal Carcinoma


Cytoplasmic Pseudofragments


Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition


Hedgehog Signaling Pathway




Loss of Heterozygosity




Microsatellite Instability


High Microsatellite Instability


Low Microsatellite Instability


Peritumoral Lymphocytic Infiltrate


Serrated Adenoma


Serrated Carcinoma


Sessile Serrated Adenoma


Tumor Budding


Tumor Growth Pattern


Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes



Adenomatous Polyposis Coli


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor


Ephrin Receptor B2


Fascin 1


Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 α




O-6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase


DNA Mismatch Repair Protein Mlh1

MSH2 and MSH6

DNA Mismatch Repair Protein MSH2 and MSH6


Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein






Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mari Carmen Turpín Sevilla
    • 1
    • 2
  • José García Solano
    • 3
    • 4
  • Claudio Navarre
    • 5
  • Miguel Pérez-Guillermo García
    • 3
  • Ana Conesa
    • 5
  • Pablo Conesa Zamora
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Pathology(HGUSL)CartagenaSpain
  2. 2.University Francisco of VitoriaMadridSpain
  3. 3.Department of PathologyHospital General Universitario Santa Lucia (HGUSL)CartagenaSpain
  4. 4.Facultad de Ciencias de la SaludCatholic University of Murcia (UCAM)MurciaSpain
  5. 5.Genomics of Gene Expression LaboratoryCentro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe (CIPF)ValenciaSpain

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