Advertisement

Humanlike Toe Joint Mechanism

  • Ko Yamamoto
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The human foot has evolved over many years into a specialized mechanism for biped walking. It has a complicated mechanism with a number of bones and ligaments. In particular, the arch structure and the toe joints have important roles in walking. The arch structure acts as a shock absorber that enhances the adaptability of the foot with respect to the ground, and the toe joints move dynamically during walking. Although most humanoid robots have a simple foot mechanism, a humanlike foot mechanism is key to the foot adaptability. This chapter reviews previous research on the humanlike foot mechanism, with special focus on the toe joint.

Keywords

Toe joint Arch structure Leg kinematics Foot adaptability Parallel four-bar linkage 

References

  1. 1.
    C.L. Vaughan, Theories of bipedal walking: an odyssey. J. Biomech. 36(4), 513–523 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Elftman, Dynamic structure of the human foot. Artif. Limbs 13(1), 49–58 (1969)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P. Sardain, G. Bessonnet, Gait analysis of a human walker wearing robot feet as shoes, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2001, pp. 2285–2292Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Saida, H. Ohta, Y. Yokokohji, Function analysis of human-like mechanical foot, using mechanically constrained shoes, in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2004, pp. 3847–3852Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Fujita, N. Matsusaka, T. Norimatsu, G. Chiba, T. Hayashi, M. Miyasaki, K. Yamaguchi, R. Suzuki, Motion and role of the MP joints in walking. Biomechanics VIII-A 467–470 (1983)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.H. Hicks, The mechanics of the foot. II. The plantar aponeurosis and the arch. J. Anat. 88(1), 25–30 (1954)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Sakagami, R. Watanabe, C. Aoyama, S. Matsunaga, N. Higaki, K. Fujimura, The intelligent ASIMO: system overview and integration, in Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2002), 2002, pp. 2438–2478Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Kaneko, F. Kanehiro, S. Kajita, H. Hirukawa, T. Kawasaki, M. Hirata, K. Akachi, T. Isozumi, Humanoid robot HRP-2, in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2004), 2004, pp. 1083–1090Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    T. Takahashi, A. Kawamura, Posture control for biped robot walk with foot toe and sole, in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2001, pp. 329–334Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Sato, T. Ishikawa, Y. Koike, Study on prototype of artificial foot model (in Japanese). Biomechanism 1, 252–257 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Kumagai, T. Emura, Vision based walking of human type biped robot on undulating ground, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2000, pp. 1352–1357Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Nishiwaki, S. Kagami, Y. Kuniyoshi, M. Inaba, H. Inoue, Toe joints that enhance bipedal and fullbody motion of humanoid robots, in Proceedings 2002 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol. 3, 2002, pp. 5–10Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Koganezawa, O. Matsumoto, Active/passive hybrid walking by the biped robot TOKAI ROBO-HABILIS 1, in Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2002, pp. 2461–2466Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Konno, R. Sellaouti, F.B. Amar, F.B. Ouezdou, Design and development of the biped prototype ROBIAN, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2002, pp. 1384–1389Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Tajima, K. Suga, Motion having a flight phase: experiment involving a one-legged robot, in Proceedings the 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2006, pp. 1726–1731Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. Ogura, K. Shimomura, H. Kondo, A. Morishima, T. Okubo, H.-O. Lim, A. Takanishi, S. Moriaki, Human-like walking with knee stretched, heel-contact and toe-off motion by a humanoid robot, in Proceedings the 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2006, pp. 3976–3981Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. Yamamoto, T. Sugihara, Y. Nakamura, Toe joint mechanism using parallel four-bar linkage enabling humanlike multiple support at toe pad and toe tip, in Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids07), 2007, pp. 410–415Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Kajita, K. Kaneko, M. Morisawa, S. Nakaoka, H. Hirukawa, ZMP-based biped running enhanced by toe springs, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2007, pp. 3963–3969Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Lohmeier, T. Buschmann, H. Ulbrich, Humanoid robot LOLA, in Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2009, pp. 775–780Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Kaneko, F. Kanehiro, M. Morisawa, T. Tsuji, K. Miura, S. Nakaoka, S. Kajita, K. Yokoi, Hardware improvement of cybernetic human HRP-4C for entertainment use, in IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2011, pp. 4392–4399Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Narioka, T. Homma, K. Hosoda, Humanlike ankle-foot complex for a biped robot, in IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2012, pp. 15–20Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. Hashimoto, Y. Takezaki, K. Hattori, H. Kondo, T. Takashima, H.-O. Lim, A. Takanishi, A study of function of foot’s medial longitudinal arch using biped humanoid robot, in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2010, pp. 2206–2211Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Hashimoto, H. Motohashi, T. Takashima, H.-O. Lim, A. Takanishi, Shoes-wearable foot mechanism mimicking characteristics of human’s foot arch and skin, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2013, pp. 678–683Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Nishiwaki, T. Sugihara, S. Kagami, F. Kanehiro, M. Inaba, H. Inoue, Design and development of research platform for perception-action integration in humanoid robot: H6, in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2000, pp. 1559–1564Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    U.-J. Yang, J.-Y. Kim, Mechanical design of powered prosthetic leg and walking pattern generation based on motion capture data. Adv. Robot. 29(16), 1061–1079 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y. Ogawa, D. Maita, G. Venture, Gait analysis for the development of the biped robot foot structure, in Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control, 2014, pp. 2159–2164Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Vukobratovic, J. Stepanenko, On the stability of anthropomorphic systems. Math. Biosci. 15, 1–37 (1972)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Yamamoto, T. Sugihara, Y. Nakamura, Gait planning including toe contact with boundary condition relaxation, in Proceedings of the 17th CISM-IFToMM Symposium (RoManSy17), 2008, pp. 409–416Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Y. Sudo, Y. Kawamura, H. Yano, T. Hashizume, Study on walking by on-line measurement using min-computer (in Japanese). Biomechanism 3, 227–235 (1972)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. Hernandez-Santos, E. Rodriguez-Leal, R. Soto, J. Gordillo, Kinematics and dynamics of a new 16 DOF humanoid biped robot with active toe joint. Int. J. Adv. Robot. Syst. 9(190), 1–12 (2012)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    K. Tanaka, T. Sugihara, Dynamically consistent motion design of a humanoid robot even at the limit of kinematics supporting region, in Proceedings of IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots, 2014, pp. 1007–1012Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations