Encyclopedia of the Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy

Living Edition
| Editors: Mortimer Sellers, Stephan Kirste

Card, Claudia

  • Barbara S. AndrewEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6730-0_39-2


Claudia Card (1940–2015) was one of the foremost scholars of ethics in recent times. Card wrote about a variety of issues in ethical theory and applied ethics. She is most well-known for her work on an ethical theory of evil, on gay and lesbian rights, and on feminist philosophy. She wrote about many other issues in philosophy including the history of women philosophers, the history of lesbian culture, environmental philosophy, and the roles of punishment, mercy, forgiveness, and moral luck. She was fundamental in developing lesbian philosophy. Card consistently contextualizes her own work among the work of other scholars, especially noting the work of other feminists.


Card’s work on evil is significant to legal philosophy for considering how to classify wrong actions and for determining punishment. Where historical authors have considered the problem of evil to be about why evil exists (especially if we assume a benevolent god) or the more contemporary question of...

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  1. Card C (ed) (1991) Feminist ethics. University Press of Kansas, LawrenceGoogle Scholar
  2. Card C (1995) Lesbian choices. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Card C (1996a) Against marriage and motherhood. Hypatia 11(3):1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Card C (1996b) The unnatural lottery: character and moral luck. Temple University Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  5. Card C (ed) (1999a) On feminist ethics and politics. University Press of Kansas, LawrenceGoogle Scholar
  6. Card C (1999b) The road to Lake Wobegon. J Soc Philos 30(3):369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Card C (2001) Is penalty enhancement a sound idea? Law Philos 20:195–214Google Scholar
  8. Card C (2002) The atrocity paradigm: a theory of evil. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Card C (ed) (2003) The Cambridge companion to Simone de Beauvoir. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. Card C (2004a) Environmental atrocities and non-sentient life. Ethics Environ 9(1):23–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Card C (2004b) The atrocity paradigm revisited. Hypatia 19(4):212–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Card C (2007) Gay divorce: thoughts on the legal regulation of marriage. Hypatia 32(1):24–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Card C (2008) Ticking bombs and interrogations. Crim Law Philos 2(1):1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Card C (2010) Confronting evils. Terrorism, torture, genocide. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Card C (2011) Surviving long-term mass atrocities: U-boats, catchers, and ravens. Proc Addr American Philos Assoc 85(2):7–26Google Scholar
  16. Card C (2012a) Beyond tragedy to what. In: Halwani R, Quinn C, Wible A (eds) Queer philosophy: presentations of the Society for Lesbian and gay Philosophy, 1998–2008. Rodopi, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  17. Card C (2012b) Responding to hate crimes. In: Halwani R, Quinn C, Wible A (eds) Queer philosophy: presentations of the Society for Lesbian and gay Philosophy, 1998–2008. Rodopi, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  18. Card C, Marsoobian AT (eds) (2007) Genocide’s aftermath: responsibility and repair. Wiley-Blackwell, MaldenGoogle Scholar
  19. Veltman A, Norlock K (2009) Evil, political violence, and forgiveness: essays in honor of Claudia card. Lexington Books, LanhamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyWilliam Paterson UniversityWayneUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Sally Scholz
    • 1
  1. 1.Philosophy DepartmentVillanova UniversityVillanovaUSA