Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics

Living Edition
| Editors: David M. Kaplan

Vegetarianism

  • David Detmer
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6167-4_24-2

Synonyms

Introduction

Vegetarianism is the practice of excluding meat from one’s diet. Vegetarians avoid consuming any animal flesh, including fish and fowl. Some vegetarians eat eggs and/or dairy. Others, vegans, refrain from eating any animal products and subsist on an entirely plant-based diet, typically consisting of vegetables, fruits, grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes.

Vegetarians can also be distinguished based on their reasons for abstaining from eating meat. Some do so for reasons of personal health. Others avoid meat for economic reasons or because they have an aesthetic dislike of its taste, smell, or appearance or because their religion prohibits its consumption. But still others, “ethical vegetarians,” do so for moral reasons. In keeping with the ethical focus of this encyclopedia, the remainder of this essay will be concerned exclusively with ethical vegetarianism (also called “moral vegetarianism”).

While a great variety of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Aquinas, S. T. (1989). Differences between rational and other creatures (an excerpt from Summa Contra Gentiles) (trans. by the English Dominican Fathers; Eds.: Regan, T., & Singer, P.). (Original work published around 1264)Google Scholar
  2. Aristotle. (1989). Animals and slavery (an excerpt from Politics) (trans: Jowett, B.; Eds.: Regan, T., & Singer, P.). (Original work published around 350 B.C.E.)Google Scholar
  3. Baird, R. M., & Rosenbaum, S. E. (Eds.). (1991). Animal experimentation: The moral issues. Buffalo: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  4. Barnet, S., & Bedau, H. (Eds.). (1990). Current issues and enduring questions (2nd ed.). Boston: Bedford.Google Scholar
  5. Coady, C. A. J. (1990). Defending human chauvinism (Eds.: Barnet, S., & Bedau, H.). (Original work published 1986)Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, C. (1991). The case for the use of animals in biomedical research (Eds.: Baird, R. M., & Rosenbaum, S. E.). (Original work published 1986)Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, C. (2001). In defense of the use of animals (Cohen, C., & Regan, T.).Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, C., & Regan, T. (2001). The animal rights debate. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  9. Craig, W., & Mangels, R. (2009). Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian diets. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109(7), 1266–1282. http://www.eatright.org/about/content.aspx?id=8357. Accessed 19 June 2012.
  10. Descartes, R. (1989). Animals are machines (an excerpt from Discourse on Method) (trans: Haldane E. S., & Ross, G. R. T.; Eds.: Regan, T., & Singer, P.). (Original work published 1637)Google Scholar
  11. Food and Agricultural Association of the United Nations. (2006). Livestock’s long shadow. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.HTM. Accessed 16 Jan 2012.
  12. George, K. P. (2000). Animal, vegetable, or woman?: A feminist critique of ethical vegetarianism. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kant, I. (1989). Duties in regard to animals. (An excerpt from “Duties to Animals and Spirits,” in Lectures on Ethics). (trans: Infield, L.; Eds.: Regan, T., & Singer, P.). (Original work composed around 1775–1780, and published in 1924)Google Scholar
  14. Narveson, J. (1987). On a case for animal rights. Monist, 70(1), 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Plutarch. (1999). On the eating of flesh (trans: Cherniss, H., & Helmbold, W. C.; Eds.: Walters, K. S. & Portmess, L.). (Original work published around 120 CE)Google Scholar
  16. Regan, T., & Singer, P. (Eds.). (1989). Animal rights and human obligations (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  17. Steinbock, B. (1978). Speciesism and the idea of equality. Philosophy, 53(204), 247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Walters, K. S., & Portmess, L. (Eds.). (1999). Ethical vegetarianism: From Pythagoras to Peter Singer. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  19. Warren, M. A. (1991). Difficulties with the strong animal rights position (Eds.: Baird, R. M., & Rosenbaum, S. E.). (Original work published 1986)Google Scholar
  20. White, A. (1989). Why animals cannot have rights (an excerpt from Rights) (Eds.: Regan, T., & Singer, P.). (Original work published 1984)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of English and PhilosophyPurdue University Calumet, IU/PUI CalumetHammondUSA