Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics

Living Edition
| Editors: David M. Kaplan

Agricultural Cooperatives

  • Thomas GrayEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6167-4_203-1

Synonyms

Introduction

Cooperatives are formal social movements utilized around the globe often in reaction to various social-economic injustices and/or market failures. Their formation in the USA has been influenced by a legacy inherited from farmers and agricultural cooperatives developed first in Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Ireland, and Iceland and from labor and consumer cooperatives in the UK, France, Sweden, Finland, Norway, and Italy. Historically disadvantaged farmers and/or workers have spearheaded their development both in Europe and the USA. They have also been used in a formal development context throughout the developing world, often driven with a similar impetus to address social justice issues, though with mixed results. This entry focuses on agricultural cooperatives in the USA only, though the tensions specified here highlight the...

Keywords

Credit Union Investment Firm Democratic Governance Large Market Share Agricultural Cooperative 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Ali, S., Penn, J., & Eversull, E. E. (2011). Cooperative statistics 2011. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture, Rural Development-Cooperative Programs Service Report 72.Google Scholar
  2. Alperovitz, G. (2013). What then must we do? White River Junction: Chelsea Green.Google Scholar
  3. Boehlje, M., & Schrader, L. (1998). The industrialization of agriculture. In J. S. Royer & R. Hants (Eds.), The industrialization of agriculture. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  4. Dunn, J. (1988). Basic cooperative principles and their relationship to selected practices. Journal of Agricultural Cooperation, 3, 83–93.Google Scholar
  5. Fairbarin, B. (2004). History of cooperative. In C. D. Merrett & N. Walzer (Eds.), Cooperatives and local development. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe Press.Google Scholar
  6. Fulton, M., & Larson, K. (2012). Failing members and investors. In J. Sousa & R. Herman (Eds.), A cooperative dilemma: Converting organizational form. Saskatoon: Center for the Study of Co-operatives. University of Saskatchewan.Google Scholar
  7. Gray, T. W. (2000). High modernity, new agriculture, and agricultural cooperatives. Journal of Cooperatives, 15, 63–73.Google Scholar
  8. Gray, T. W. (2005). Local-base, alternative marketing strategies could help save more small farms. Rural Cooperatives. May/June.Google Scholar
  9. Gray, T.W., W.D. Heffernan, and M.K. Hendrickson. (2001). Agricultural Cooperatives and Dilemmas of Survival. Journal of Rural Cooperation. 29(2),167–192Google Scholar
  10. Gray, T.W. C. Stofferahn. (2014). Eliminating Organizational Tensions, Dis-embedding Farmers. In G.M. Fulkerson & A.R. Thomas (Eds.) Studies in Urbanormativity. Lanham: Lexington. Google Scholar
  11. International Cooperative Alliance. (2013). Cooperative principles. http://www.ica.coop.principles. Accessed 15 Nov 2013.
  12. LeHeron, R., & Roche, M. (1997). Sustainability and institution building, issues and prospects as seen from New Zealand. In D. Goodman & J. Watts (Eds.), Globalizing food: Agrarian questions and global restructuring. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Mooney, P. (2004). Democratizing rural economy. Rural Sociology, 69(1), 76–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Sousa, J., & Herman, R. (2012). Converting organizational form: An introductory discussion. In J. Sousa & R. Herman (Eds.), A cooperative dilemma: Converting organizational form. Saskatoon: Center for the Study of Co-operatives. University of Saskatchewan.Google Scholar
  15. Voorhis, J. (1961). American cooperatives: Where they come from, what they do, where they are going. New York: Harpers.Google Scholar
  16. Wolf, R. (2012). Democracy at work. Chicago: Haymarket Books.Google Scholar
  17. Zeulie, K. A., & Cropp, R. (2004). Cooperatives: Principles and practices in the 21st century. Madison: University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.USDA, Rural Development-Cooperative ProgramsWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Cooperative Center Scholar, University of SaskatchewanWashingtonUSA