The Wetland Book pp 1831-1839 | Cite as

Wetlands of Berbak National Park (Indonesia)

  • Wim Giesen
  • Marcel J. Silvius
  • Yoyok Wibisono
Reference work entry


Berbak National Park extends over 162,700 ha and is the largest relatively intact swamp forest reserve on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. One third of the park consists of freshwater swamp forests and the remainder consists of peat swamp forests. Berbak is highly important for biodiversity conservation, especially for species such as false gharial Tomistoma schlegelii, painted terrapin Batagur borneoensis, Storm’s stork Ciconia stormi, white-winged duck Cairina scutulata and Sumatran tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae. Although officially protected since 1935 it is under severe threat from illegal logging, encroachment by agriculture (oil palm) and fires, the latter mainly occurring in peatland areas drained by canals excavated for agriculture.


Berbak Swamp forest Peatland Sumatra Indonesia 


  1. Andriesse JP. Characteristics and management of tropical peat soils. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute; 1986.Google Scholar
  2. Craswell ET, Pushparajah E. Management of acid soils in the Humid Tropics of Asia. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR)/International Board for Soil Research and Management; 1989. 118 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Dent D. Acid sulphate soils: a baseline for research and development, ILRI Publication No. 39. Wageningen: International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement/ILRI; 1986. 204 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Dransfield J. Notes on the palm flora of Central Sumatra. Reindwardtia. 1974;8:519–31.Google Scholar
  5. Franken NAP, Roos MC. Studies in lowland equatorial forest in Jambi Province, Central Sumatra. Bogor: BIOTROP/SEAMEAO Regional Centre for Tropical Biology; 1981.Google Scholar
  6. Giesen W. Berbak Wildlife Reserve, Jambi, Sumatra. Final Draft Survey Report. PHPA/AWB Sumatra Wetland Project Report No. 13, Bogor; 1991.Google Scholar
  7. Giesen W. Causes of peatswamp forest degradation in Berbak NP, Indonesia, and recommendations for restoration. Water for food and ecosystems programme project on “Promoting the river basin and ecosystem approach for sustainable management of SE Asian lowland peatswamp forests: Case study Air Hitam Laut River basin, Jambi Province, Indonesia.” Arnhem: ARCADIS Euroconsult; 2004.Google Scholar
  8. Giesen W, Wulffraat S, Zieren M, Scholten L. Mangrove guidebook for Southeast Asia, RAP Publications 2006/07. Bangkok: FAO & Wetlands International; 2007. 769 pp. ISBN 974-7946-85-8.Google Scholar
  9. Hardjowigeno S. Mangrove soils of Indonesia. In: Soerianegara I et al., editors. In: Proceedings Symposium on Mangrove Management: its Ecological and Economic Considerations, August 9–11, 1988, Bogor; 1989. p. 257–65.Google Scholar
  10. Hornskov J. More birds from Berbak Game reserve, Sumatra. Kukila. 1987;3:58.Google Scholar
  11. Konsten CJM, Klepper O. Pyrite in coastal wetlands: a natural chemical time bomb. Paper presented at the European state of the art conference on delayed effects of chemicals in soils and sediments (Chemical Time Bombs), 2 5 September 1992, Veldhoven; 1992, 14 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Olviana EK. Pendugaan Populasi Harimau Sumatera. Panthera tigris sumatrae, Pocock 1929 Menggunakan Kamera Jebakan di Taman Nasional Berbak. Dep. Konservasi Sumberdaya Hutan dan Ekowisata, Fak. Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor; 2011.Google Scholar
  13. Perbatakusuma EA, Rachman D, Collins M. Bird species diversity and reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation in Berbak Peat Swamp Forest Jambi Province Indonesia. Technical Report. Bird and REDD Report. Zoological Society London – Ministry of Forestry. Jambi; 2010.Google Scholar
  14. Silvius M. Notes on new wader records for Berbak Game Reserve, Sumatra. Kukila. 1987;3:59.Google Scholar
  15. Silvius MJ. On the importance of Sumatra’s east coast for waterbirds, with notes on the Asian Dowitcher Limnodromus semipalmatus. Kukila. 1988;3:117–38.Google Scholar
  16. Silvius MJ, de Iongh H. White-winged Wood Duck, a new site for Jambi province. Kukila. 1989;4(3–4):150.Google Scholar
  17. Silvius MS, Verheugt WJM. The birds of Berbak Game Reserve, Jambi Province, Sumatra. Kukila. 1986;2:76–85.Google Scholar
  18. Silvius MJ, Simons HW, Verheugt WJM. Soils, vegetation, fauna and nature conservation of the Berbak Game Reserve, Sumatra, Indonesia, RIN Contributions to research on management of natural resources. Arnhem: Research Institute for Nature Management; 1984.Google Scholar
  19. Silvius MJ, Verheugt WJM, Iskandar J. Coastal wetlands inventory of Southeast Sumatra. Report of the Sumatra Waterbird Survey Oct–Dec 1984. ICBP Study Report No 9. Cambridge; 1986.Google Scholar
  20. Stuebing RB, Bezuijen MR, Auliya M. The current and historic distribution of Tomistoma schlegelii (The False Gharial) (Müller, 1838) (Crocodylia, Reptilia). Raffles Bull Zool. 2006;54:181–97.Google Scholar
  21. Van Eijk P, Leenman P, Wibisono ITC, Giesen W. Regeneration and restoration of degraded peat swamp forest in Berbak NP, Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Malay Nat J. 2009;61:223–41.Google Scholar
  22. Wösten H, Hooijer A, Siderius C, Dipa SR, Idris A, Rieley J. Tropical peatland water management modeling of the Air Hitam Laut catchment in Indonesia. Int J River Basin Manag. 2006a;4:233–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wösten JHM, van den Berg J, van Eijk P, Gevers GJM, Giesen WBJT, Hooijer A, Idris A, Leenman PH, Rais DS, Siderius C, Silvius MJ, Suryadiputra N, Wibisono ITC. Interrelationships between hydrology and ecology in fire degraded tropical peat swamp forests. Water Resour Dev. 2006b;22:157–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wösten H, Haag A, Boissevain W. Soil and water management for sustainable agriculture in lowlands. Quick Assessment and Nationwide Screening (QANS) of Peat and Lowland Resources and Action Planning for the Implementation of a National Lowland Strategy. PVW3A10002 Agentschap NL 6201068 QANS Lowland Development. For Indonesian Ministry of Public Works, Jakarta; 2013, 77 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Euroconsult Mott MacDonaldArnhemThe Netherlands
  2. 2.WageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Wetlands International – Indonesia ProgrammeBogorIndonesia

Personalised recommendations