Advertisement

The Wetland Book pp 1743-1750 | Cite as

Wetlands of Mahanadi Delta (India)

  • Ritesh Kumar
  • Pranati Patnaik
Reference work entry

Abstract

The Delta of Mahanadi, a major east flowing peninsular river of India, has a diverse regime of wetlands closely governed by landforms and hydrological regimes. The upper delta region, having a fanning distributary system with intervening alluvial plains, has wetlands mostly in the form of small fresh waterbodies developed as depressions on both flanks of the Rivers Mahanadi and Brahmani. The central delta, with predominantly clayey soil has wetlands primarily in the form of floodplains connected to active river channels as well as paleo-channels. Also located within the central delta are ephemeral wetlands located in the alluvial floodplain zones. Within the narrow coastal plains, wetland distribution is governed by the interaction between coastal and freshwater processes. Extensive hydrological fragmentation and landuse changes have significantly altered water and sediment distribution patterns within the delta, and loss of connectivity between river channels and floodplains. Owing to a range of pressures, the wetland area has undergone at least 32% decline during the period between 1975 and 2010. The State Government of Odisha constituted the State Wetland Development Authority in 2011 for undertaking integrated management of the entire wetlands of the state, including those of the Mahanadi Delta. The government has initiated management planning for wetlands with high biodiversity value on a priority basis. Changing climate within the deltaic landscape further reinforces the urgency for securing wetland functioning within a rapidly developing delta.

Keywords

Delta Floodplains Ephemeral wetlands Mangroves Embankments 

References

  1. Badola R, Hussain SA. Valuation of the Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem for ecological security and sustainable resource use. Study report. Deheradun: Wildlife Institute of India; 2003.Google Scholar
  2. Census of India. Provisional population totals – Orissa. New Delhi: Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India; 2011.Google Scholar
  3. Central Water Commission (CWC) and National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC). Mahanadi Basin. New Delhi/Hyderabad: Central Water Commission (CWC), Ministry of Water Resources/National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), ISRO, Department of Space, Government of India; 2014.Google Scholar
  4. Chakrabarti PK. River Mahanadi- environment and fishery. In: Sinha M, Khan MA, Jha BC, editors. Ecology, fisheries & fish-stock assessment of Indian rivers. Barrackpore: Central Inland Capture Fisheries Research Institute; 1999. p. 104–12.Google Scholar
  5. D’Souza R. Colonialism, capitalism and nature: debating the origins of Mahanadi delta’s hydraulic crisis (1803–1928). Econ Pol Wkly. 2002;37(13):1261–72.Google Scholar
  6. D’Souza R. Drowned and dammed: colonial capitalism and flood control in Eastern India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press; 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Das S, Vincent JR. Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(18):7357–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Ghosh S, Mujumdar PP. Future rainfall scenario over Odisha with GCM projections by statistical downscaling. Curr Sci. 2006;90(3):396–404.Google Scholar
  9. GoO–Government of Orissa. Delta development plan mahanadi delta command area: geology geomorphology and coast building, vol. IV. Irrigation Department, Government of Orissa; 1986. [Unpublished Report with Engineer in-Chief].Google Scholar
  10. Gosain AK, Rao S, Basuray D. Climate change impact assessment on hydrology of Indian river basins. Curr Sci. 2006;90(3):346–53.Google Scholar
  11. Gupta H, Kao S, Dai M. The role of Mega Dams in reducing sediment fluxes: a case study of large Asian rivers. J Hydrol. 2012;464–465:447–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jagannathan CR, Ratnam C, Baishya NC, Dasgupta U. Geology of the offshore Mahanadi basin. Petroleum Asia J. 1983;IV(4):101–4.Google Scholar
  13. Khatua KK, Patra PC. Management of high flood in Mahanadi and its tributaries below Naraj. Published in 49th Annual Session of IEI (India). Bhubaneswar: Orissa State Center; 2004.Google Scholar
  14. Kumar R, Pattnaik A. Chilika- an integrated management planning framework for conservation and wise use. New Delhi/Bhubaneswar: Wetlands International- South Asia/Chilika Development Authority; 2012.Google Scholar
  15. Mohanti M. Coastal processes and management of the Mahanadi River Deltaic complex, East Coast of India. In: Kay R, editor. Deltas of the world. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers; 1993.Google Scholar
  16. Patnaik SS, Mahalik NK, Bhunya SP. Mapping and characterization of the wetlands along the Eastern coast of Orissa. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forest; 1990.Google Scholar
  17. Ravishankar R, Navamuniyammal T, Gnanappazham L, Nayak SS, Mahapatra GC, Selvam V. Atlas of mangrove wetlands of India. Chennai: M.S. Swaminathan Research foundation; 2004.Google Scholar
  18. Selvam V. Environment classification of mangrove wetlands of India. Curr Sci. 2003;84(6):757–65.Google Scholar
  19. UNESCO. Bhitarkanika conservation area. 2009. Available from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5446/. Accessed 17 Oct 2012.
  20. Unnikrishnan AS, Shankar D. Are sea-level-rise trends along the North Indian Ocean coasts consistent with global estimates? Global Planet Change. 2007;57(3–4):301–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wetlands International South Asia. Wetlands and livelihood project technical report. New Delhi: Wetlands International South Asia; 2010.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wetlands International South AsiaNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations