Mires

Reference work entry

Abstract

The term ‘mire’ is now widely accepted as the appropriate term for peatlands which still display the features associated with active peat formation. It is, however, difficult to determine whether any given site is actually accumulating peat at any specific moment in time. The presence of vegetation which is normally peat forming has thus been proposed and been widely adopted as a pragmatic means of identifying the presence of mires – i.e., peatland systems still capable of accumulating peat.

Keywords

Mire Moor Bog Fen Moss Carr Swamp Marsh Myr Peatland Godwin Tansley Peat formation Active raised bog Active blanket bog European Commission Wetland Sedges Sphagnum Cotton grass Swamp-forest Calcium Suo Spring mire International Mire Conservation Group IMCG Mangroves Carbon 

References

  1. European Commission. Interpretation manual of European Union habitats, Nature and biodiversity. Brussels: European Commission DG Environment; 2007.Google Scholar
  2. Godwin H. The factors which differentiate marsh, fen, bog and heath. Chron Bot. 1941;6:11.Google Scholar
  3. Gore AJP. Introduction. In: Gore AJP, editor. Ecosystems of the world 4A. Mires: swamp, bog, fen and moor. General studies. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1983. p. 1–34.Google Scholar
  4. Joosten H, Clarke D. Wise use of mires and peatlands. Totnes/Devon: NHBS/International Mire Conservation Group and International Peat Society; 2002.Google Scholar
  5. Löfroth M. European mires – an IMCG project studying distribution and conservation. In: Grünig A, editor. Mires and man: mire conservation in a densely populated country – the Swiss experience. Birmensdorf: Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research; 1994. p. 281–3. Available from www.wsl.ch/dienstleistungen/publikationen/pdf/420.pdf. Accessed 14 Apr 2015.
  6. Page S, Rieley JO, Shotyk ØW, Weiss D. Interdependence of peat and vegetation in a tropical peat swamp forest. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B. 1999;354:1885–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Tansley AG. The British islands and their vegetation. Cambridge: The University Press; 1939.Google Scholar
  8. Troels-Smith J. Characterisation of unconsolidated sediments. Geological survey of Denmark. IV. Series Vol. 3, No. 10. København: Forlag and Sandal; 1955.Google Scholar
  9. Wheeler BD, Proctor MCF. Ecological gradients, subdivisions and terminology of north-west European mires. J Ecol. 2000;88:187–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sustainability Research InstituteUniversity of East LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations