The Wetland Book pp 1635-1646 | Cite as

Fereydoon Kenar, Ezbaran, and Sorkh Ruds Ab-Bandans

  • Sadegh Sadeghi Zadegan
Reference work entry


Fereydoon Kenar Ramsar Site or “Fereydoon Kenar, Ezbaran & Sorkh Ruds Ab-Bandans” (FDK) occupies a total area of 5,427 ha, situated on the coastal plain of the South Caspian, in Mazandaran province. This site is also a nonshooting area (NSA). It includes four “damgahs” or duck-trapping areas and Fereydoon Kenar Wildlife Refuge (48 ha). Each damgah consists of shallow freshwater impoundments situated in harvested rice paddies, which have been developed as a duck-trapping area, surrounded by forest strips and reed enclosures. The area is the only known overwintering quarters of the western population of the Siberian crane (Leucogeranus leucogeranus) and is also an important wintering area for many other waterbirds, notably dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) and grey geese (Anser spp.). With the exception of small streams, the wetlands are almost entirely modified or man-made, consisting of a large expanse of rice fields surrounding four isolated damgah areas – shallow reservoirs that are flooded in winter with the dual purpose of providing irrigation water for the rice fields and attracting large numbers of waterfowl. Being located at the crossroads of the western, central, and eastern Palearctic and with a mild and wet winter climate, phenomenal numbers of migratory birds pass through and overwinter in the south Caspian lowlands, making it one of the truly great wintering sites in the world. Fereydoon Kenar NSA is not officially in the protected area network; therefore, the resolution of most threats to wintering Siberian cranes and other waterbirds requires a collaborative approach based on comanagement principles. The traditional duck-trapping practices used at the damgahs are slowly dwindling, and it is possible that in time they might cease altogether, replaced by hunting with shotguns as in other areas. High land prices have attracted local farmers to sell off their land for holiday accommodation and similar development; thus fragmentation and piecemeal loss of the rice field landscape are taking place, exacerbated by infrastructure development.


Wetlands Duck trapping area Artificial wetlands Siberian crane Rice paddies Waterbirds Ramsar convention Iran Mazandaran Caspian sea 


  1. Archibald G. Ron Sauey and the Siberian Cranes. J Ecol Soc. 1992;5:41–8.Google Scholar
  2. BirdLife International. Important Bird Areas, IR019 Fereydoonkenar Marshes. 1998.
  3. CMS. Western/Central Asian Site Network for the Siberian Crane and Other Waterbirds. Guidelines for the preparation of site nomination documents. Annotated list of nomination sites. Version: 13 March 2008. Bonn: CMS Secretariat, United Nations Campus; 2008. p. 221.Google Scholar
  4. Farhadpour H. Capturing common crane with Alpha-Chloralose, 1st meeting of the working group on European cranes. 1985. Aquila. 1987;93–94:237.Google Scholar
  5. Harris J. Safe flyways for the Siberian crane. A flyway approach conserves some of Asia’s most beautiful wetlands and waterbirds. Terminal report of the UNEP/GEF Siberian crane wetland project: development of a wetland site and flyway network for conservation of the Siberian crane and other migratory waterbirds in Asia, GF/2712-03-4627. 2010.
  6. Ilyashenko EI, editor. Atlas of key sites for the Siberian crane and other waterbirds in Western/Central Asia. International Crane Foundation, Baraboo. 116 p. 2010.
  7. Kelly M. Project “Sterkh”: summary of Siberian crane reintroduction program 1983–1998. International Crane Foundation. 1998.Google Scholar
  8. Mirande CM, Prentice C. Conservation of flyway wetlands in Asia using the Siberian crane as a flagship species: an overview of the outcomes of the UNEP/GEF Siberian crane wetland project. In: Prentice C, editor. Conservation of flyway wetlands in East and West/Central Asia. Proceedings of the Project Completion Workshop of the UNEP/GEF Siberian Crane Wetland Project; 2009 Oct 14–15; Harbin. 2011.
  9. Neshat SN. Community participation and development of local environment programmes through community-based organizations at Fereydoon Kenar. In: Prentice C, editor. Conservation of flyway wetlands in East and West/Central Asia. Proceedings of the Project Completion Workshop of the UNEP/GEF Siberian Crane Wetland Project, 14–15 October 2009, Harbin. 2011.
  10. Ramsar Convention Secretariat. Information sheet on Ramsar wetlands (RIS), Ramsar convention on wetlands, 2003. Fereydoon Kenar, Ezbaran & Sorkh Ruds Ab-Bandans.
  11. Sadeghi-Zadegan S. An overview of the historical situation of the Siberian crane and common crane in Iran. Report of the third meeting of Siberian crane range states, 8–13 December 1998, Ramsar. In: UNEP/CMS, editor. Conservation measures for the Siberian crane. CMS Technical Series Publication No.1. Bonn: UNEP/CMS Secretariat; 1999.
  12. Sadeghi-Zadegan S, Fazeli A. Fereydoon Kenar, Ezbaran & Sorkh Ruds Ab-Bandans, Iran. 2007.
  13. Sadeghi-Zadegan S, Ilyashenko E, Prentice C. Western flyway of the Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus: further releases of captive-reared birds in Iran. Sandgrouse J Ornithol Soc Middle East. 2009;31(2):112–21.
  14. Scott DA. A directory of wetlands in the Middle East. Gland: IUCN/IWRB; 1995.Google Scholar
  15. Siberian Crane Flyway Conservation Programme. Fereydoon Kenar, Ezbaran and Sorkh Rud Ab-Bandans. 2007. Accessed 21 May 2014.
  16. UNEP/CMS. Conservation measures for the Siberian crane, 5th ed. CMS Technical Report Series No.25, UNEP/CMS Secretariat. 2011.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ornithological Unit, Wildlife BureauDepartment of EnvironmentTehranIran

Personalised recommendations