The Wetland Book pp 1251-1260 | Cite as

Nile Delta (Egypt)

  • Mohamed Reda Fishar
Reference work entry


The Nile Delta is situated in the middle of the Egyptian Mediterranean coastline of approximately 1,000 km. The Delta shoreline consists of sandy and silty shores of greatly varying lateral configurations, depending on where the old branches of the Nile had their outlets. It is home to over 50 percent of Egypt’s population of 80 million. The Nile delta is suitable for intensive agriculture and it supports 63% of the country’s agricultural land. The coastline has two promontories, Rosetta and Damietta, and beaches are backed by coastal flats followed by coastal dunes and four brackish shallow lakes (from east to west: Mariut, Edku, Borullus and Manzalah). Delta and lakes are economically support both a large fishery and many fish farms. Lake fisheries produce 182,525 tons which represent about 12.54% of the nation’s total fish production. Nile Delta is part of one of the world’s most important migration routes for birds. Every year, millions of birds pass between Europe and Africa along the East Africa Flyway, and the wetland areas of Egypt are especially critical stopover sites.

Delta lakes are threatened by continuous land reclamation projects, construction of roads along the north coast, coastal erosion, soil salinization, extensive land use, pollution and degradation, and lack of appropriate institutional management systems. Nile Delta is subject also to shoreline changes resulting from erosion and accretion, subsidence, and sea level rise (SLR) resulting from climate change.


Delta, Nile Egypt Biodiversity Lakes Threatens 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Inland water and Aquaculture BranchNational Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF)CairoEgypt

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