Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

  • C. Max Finlayson
Reference work entry


The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was initiated in 2001 with the objective being to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human wellbeing and the scientific basis for action needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems. The outcomes were presented in five technical volumes and six synthesis reports. The combined outputs provided a state-of-the-art appraisal of the condition and trends of the world’s ecosystems and the services they provide for people as well as an analysis of the options to restore, conserve, or enhance the sustainable use of ecosystems.


Ecosystem services Ecosystems Assessment Biodiversity 


  1. Finlayson CM, Davidson N, Pritchard D, Milton GR, MacKay H. The ramsar convention and ecosystem-based approaches to the wise use and sustainable development of wetlands. J Int Wildl Law Policy. 2011;14(3–4):176–98.Google Scholar
  2. MA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Washington, DC: Island Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  3. MA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press; 2005a.Google Scholar
  4. MA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment). Ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water synthesis. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute; 2005b.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Land, Water and SocietyCharles Sturt UniversityAlburyAustralia
  2. 2.UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water EducationDelftThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations