Anatomy of Wetland Plants

Reference work entry

Abstract

Plants that inhabit wetlands range from very tiny plants to large trees and display various structural adaptations to wet areas. Most plants retain an epidermis that in roots may produce hairs and are one to several cell layers thick. Large air spaces (aerenchyma) are often found in the cortex and/or pith of stems and roots and the bark of some plants. Aerenchyma begins as small spaces between cells and then progresses through one of the three developmental paths: schizogeny, lysigeny, and expansigeny. In roots, the aerenchyma is delimited by an inner barrier (endodermis) and an outer barrier (hypodermis). Modifications to these layers may include Casparian bands, suberin lamellae, or secondary cell wall development. In roots, vascular tissues may be comprised of a single xylem element or multiple strands of alternating xylem and phloem. In stems, vascular tissues may be found in ring(s), as scattered bundles or with root-like configurations.

Keywords

Vascular tissue Structural adaptations Anatomy Epidermis Arenchyma Lamellae 

References

  1. Enstone DE, Peterson CA, Ma F. Root endodermis and exodermis: structure, function, and responses to the environment. J Plant Growth Regul. 2003;21:335–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Jung J, Lee SC, Choi H-K. Anatomical patterns of aerenchyma in aquatic and wetland plants. J Plant Biol. 2008;51:428–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Justin SHFW, Armstrong W. The anatomical characteristics of roots and plant response to soil flooding. New Phytol. 1987;106:465–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Meyer C, Peterson CA. Structure and function of three suberized cell layers: epidermis, exodermis, and endodermis. In: Eshel A, Beeckman T, editors. Plant roots: the hidden half. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2013. p. 5: 1–5: 20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Schenck H. Ueber das Aërenchym, ein dem Kork homologes Gewebe bei Sumpfpflanzen. Jahrb Wiss Bot. 1890;20:526–74.Google Scholar
  6. Seago Jr JL, Fernando DE. Anatomical aspects of angiosperm root evolution. Ann Bot. 2013;112:223–38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Seago Jr JL, Marsh LC, Stevens KJ, Soukup A, Votrubová O, Enstone DE. A re-examination of the root cortex in wetland flowering plants with respect to aerenchyma. Ann Bot. 2005;96:965–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Stevens KJ, Peterson L, Reader RJ. The aerenchymatous phellem of Lythrum salicaria (L.): a pathway for gas transport and its role in flood tolerance. Ann Bot. 2002;89:621–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesSUNY at OswegoOswegoUSA

Personalised recommendations