The Wetland Book pp 1855-1859 | Cite as

Environmental Flows: Three-Level Approach for Developing and Implementing Environmental Flow Recommendations

  • Jeffrey J. Opperman
Reference work entry


The three-level approach for developing environmental flow methods spans relatively simple desktop estimates of flow needs to a highly sophisticated program of research and modeling to refine environmental flow targets. Each level builds information, capacity, and support for subsequent levels of sophistication as deemed necessary. In this way, proactive, practical implementation can begin immediately upon completion of the level of assessment most suitable to the resources available to a particular water body, jurisdiction, and associated circumstances.


Environmental flows Flow regime Rivers Aquatic ecology Floodplain River management Hydrology 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Nature ConservancyChagrin FallsUSA

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