The Wetland Book pp 1903-1909 | Cite as

Performance Indicators and Monitoring

  • Mike Alexander
Reference work entry


Wetland managers need a warning when things are going wrong and confirmation when things are satisfactory. The objectives of wetland management and conservation are defined as the required conditions of the features of the wetland (the formulated standard) that are achieved through adaptive management. Monitoring consists of repeated measurements to ensure that these objectives are being met. Objectives are measured by linking them to performance indicators. Indicators can be quantified attributes, such as of the area occupied by the habitat or by one or more constituent communities; or the presence, abundance, relative proportions, or distribution of individual species. Indicators can also be specific limits for factors that influence key features, within which they are considered acceptable are defined. Performance indicators should provide managers with the confidence that they can detect changes in a feature. Managers must be able to differentiate between undesirable and desirable change, and it is usually the direction of change that will influence management decisions. The chapter provides examples of performance indicators of features and factors for a raised bog ecosystem.


Wetland management planning Wetland conservation Adaptive management Objectives Features Performance indicators 


  1. Alexander M. Management planning for nature conservation, a theoretical and practical guide. 2nd ed. Dordrecht: Springer; 2013.Google Scholar
  2. JNCC. A statement on common standards monitoring. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee; 1998.Google Scholar
  3. NRW. Unpublished internal guidance on setting objectives. Bangor: Natural Resources Wales; 2013.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CMSC, TalgarthBreconUK

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