The Wetland Book pp 2059-2064 | Cite as

Environmental Impact Assessment for Wetlands: Stakeholders and Public Participation

  • Roel Slootweg
Reference work entry


Public participation is a prerequisite for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and can consist of informing, consulting or full participation of stakeholders in the EIA process (shared analysis and assessment). Public participation is considered essential for the scoping and review phases of EIA, but also highly desirable for enhancing the quality of the whole assessment process. Relevant stakeholders include the project target groups, other people affected by the project, formal and informal organizations involved, and people who may rely on the wetland in the future. Benefits of participation include learning and empowerment of stakeholders, improved data collection, increased chances of success of the project, and in general good governance and sustainable development. The article concludes with a discussion of operating principles of participation (e.g. planning and facilitation). Some constraints are also presented, such as incomplete representation of stakeholders, communication barriers and legal limitations to participation.


Environmental impact assessment Public participation Decision-making Environmental policy Good governance Joint learning 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Slootweg en van SchootenOegstgeestThe Netherlands

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