The Wetland Book pp 2043-2051 | Cite as

Environmental Impact Assessment for Wetlands: Avoidance, Minimization, Restoration, Compensation, and Offsets

  • Susie Brownlie
Reference work entry


Wetlands provide a range of benefits to people through ecosystem services. Levels of dependence on wetlands vary, as do options for providing substitute services. Impacts of development projects or policies on wetlands can harm biodiversity. Impacts can also harm human well-being, if local communities, businesses, and/ or society at large depend – or are likely to depend in future – on the ecosystem services provided by the affected wetland. Mitigation of impacts is thus essential to safeguard these systems and their values to people; the full hierarchy of measures to mitigate harm should be used with emphasis on avoidance and minimization.


Ecosystem services Mitigation hierarchy Offsets Wetlands 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.deVilliers Brownlie Associates environmental consultantsCape TownSouth Africa

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