The Wetland Book pp 1043-1046 | Cite as

Swamp Wetlands: Provisioning Services

  • Mark Everard
Reference work entry


Swamps have been a traditional source of food throughout human history. Food sources range from plants such as lotus and the fruits of many other species including blueberries (shrubs of the genus Vaccinium), in addition to a diversity of fishes, amphibians and reptiles, waterfowl, mammals, and invertebrates. However, wetlands also produce a diversity of other provisioning services ranging from building materials to medicinal and ornamental plants, animals, and minerals.


Food Building materials Medicines Fuel Ecosystem services 


  1. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Washington, DC: Island Press; 2005.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Water Security NetworkUniversity of the West of EnglandBristolUK

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