In-Lieu Fees in Wetlands

  • Mark Everard
Reference work entry


In the USA, the concept of in-lieu fees (ILFs) relates to payments for compensatory mitigation for loss, damage or disturbance of a wetland, stream or endangered species habitat through development permitted under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act or the Endangered Species Act. Through the ILF process, a permittee provides funds to an in-lieu-fee sponsor (a public agency or nonprofit organization), who pools funds from multiple permittees to provide financial resources for building and maintaining mitigation site, or sites. The in-lieu fee sponsor is responsible for the success of the mitigation.


Compensation Mitigation banking Permittee-responsible mitigation Tradable Mitigation sequence Avoid-mitigate-compensate Clean Water Act 


  1. FHWA. Use of in-lieu fee and mitigation banking. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. n.d. Accessed 6 Aug 2014.
  2. Nelson AC, Moody M. Paying for prosperity: impact fees and job growth. Brookings Brief. 2003 Accessed 6th Aug 2014.
  3. US EPA. Compensatory mitigation resources. US Environmental Protection Agency. n.d. Accessed 6 Aug 2014.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Water Security Network, University of the West of EnglandBristolUK

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