Permit Schemes

  • Marla Nelson
Reference work entry


Despite international recognition through various treaties, wetlands remain one of the most undervalued and least understood of all global natural resources. One reason for this is the inevitable conflict between wetland preservation measures and the landowner’s freedom of choice in developing property. Permit-based regulatory systems that are designed to protect wetlands generally require permission from the government before conducting activities such as filling or otherwise altering the wetland. Permit-based legal mechanisms throughout the world designed to facilitate wetland management and the wise use of wetlands are reviewed. This includes an overview of international law calling for regulation and conservation of wetlands, then focuses on the United States’ permit program and regulatory programs in several other countries. Opportunities for market-based incentives through mitigation banking are considered.


United States Freedom of choice Legal mechanisms Market-based incentives Mitigation banking No net loss Dredge and fill Clean Water Act 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lewis and Clark Law SchoolNorthwest Environmental Defense CenterPortlandUSA

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