Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease that predominantly affects the females (female to male ratio is 9:1). The common manifestations are in the form of arthritis, skin rash, renal and hematological involvement along with fever and constitutional symptoms. Neurological, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal involvement is less common; uveitis and scleritis are rare. The skin manifestations can be lupus specific skin lesions or lupus nonspecific lesions. The pattern of joint involvement is mostly symmetrical small and large joint polyarthritis. The arthritis is nonerosive but can be deforming though these deformities are correctible. The hematological manifestations are hemolytic anemia or thrombocytopenia. Renal involvement is also very common and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The presentations of this disease may vary from mild skin and musculoskeletal manifestations to severe organ- or life-threatening manifestations. Hydroxychloroquine is given for almost all manifestations and rest of the treatment is dependent upon the severity of manifestations and presence of organ/life threatening disease.
KeywordsSystemic Lupus Erythematosus Lupus Nephritis Retinal Vasculitis Altered Sensorium Malar Rash
- Weening JJ, D’Agati VD, Schwartz MM, Seshan SV, Alpers CE, Appel GB, International Society of Nephrology Working Group on the Classification of Lupus Nephritis, Renal Pathology Society Working Group on the Classification of Lupus Nephritis, et al. The classification of glomerulonephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus revisited. Kidney Int. 2004;65(2):521–30. Review. Erratum in: Kidney Int. 2004;65(3):1132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar