Rickettsial Infections of Retina
Rickettsioses are emergent worldwide distributed arthropod vector borne diseases due to obligate intracellular small gram-negative bacteria. Most of them are transmitted to humans by the bite of contaminated arthropods, such as ticks. Systemic disease consists of high fever, headache, and skin rash. Ocular involvement is frequent but usually asymptomatic and self-limited. Most common ocular findings include bilateral or unilateral unifocal or multifocal superficial retinitis, with or without associated mild vitritis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement. Clinical diagnosis is based on epidemiological data, systemic manifestations, and the pattern of ocular involvement. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by detection of specific antibodies in serum. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice, but prevention is the mainstay of rickettsial infection control.