HIV Retinopathy

  • Igor Kozak
  • Aniruddha Agarwal
Living reference work entry


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major public health problem despite efforts aimed at disease prevention. HIV infection is a global epidemic with 33 million infected individuals and an annual infection rate of 2.7 million with 2 million deaths. HIV-associated eye disease is estimated to affect 50–75 % of HIV-infected people worldwide at some point during their disease course. Ocular manifestations in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) generally take the form of opportunistic infections that can affect any part of the ocular tissues, from the eyelids to the retina or noninfectious form such as HIV retinopathy. Involvement of the retina may lead to chronic visual impairment or blindness. Noninfectious HIV retinopathy is usually symptom free but can lead to subclinical damage and visual impairment.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Retinal Pigment Epithelium Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Optic Nerve Head 
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Suggested Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vitreoretinal/Uveitis DivisionKing Khaled Eye Specialist HospitalRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Advanced Eye CenterPost Graduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

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