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HIV Manifestations of Posterior Segment

  • J. Fernando Arevalo
  • Marwan A. Abouammoh
  • André Luiz Land Curi
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly reduced the incidence and prevalence of HIV-related ocular morbidity. Still, cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is considered the major cause of visual loss in HIV-infected individuals. Timely suspicion and prompt comprehensive evaluation is essential to reach a clinical diagnosis and initiate the required treatment. Taking into consideration other infrequent pathologies that may affect immunocompromised individuals, and management of emerging drug resistance and complications, may improve the final visual outcome.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Visual Acuity Posterior Segment Cryptococcal Meningitis Retinitis Cytomegalovirus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Fernando Arevalo
    • 1
  • Marwan A. Abouammoh
    • 2
  • André Luiz Land Curi
    • 3
  1. 1.Retina Division, Wilmer Eye InstituteThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, College of MedicineKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.National Institute of Infectious Diseases – INIOswaldo Cruz FoundationFiocruzBrazil

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