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Mannosidase, Alpha, Class 2a1 (MAN2A1, Golgi α-Mannosidase II)

  • Kelley W. Moremen
  • Alison V. Nairn
Reference work entry

Abstract

Maturation of N-glycans from oligomannose to complex-type structures on cellular and secreted proteins is essential for the roles that these structures play in cell adhesion and recognition events in metazoan organisms (Haltiwanger and Lowe 2004; Moremen et al. 2012; Varki 1993). Critical steps in the N-glycan biosynthetic pathway include the trimming of glucose and mannose residues by processing α-glucosidases and α-mannosidases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex to result in the Man3GlcNAc2 core structure necessary for conversion to complex-type N-glycans (Aebi et al. 2010; Moremen 2000; Moremen and Touster 1988, Moremen et al. 1994, 2012). The mammalian exo-α-mannosidases comprise two separate families of enzymes (CAZy glycosylhydrolase families 38 (GH38) and 47 (GH47) (Coutinho et al. 2003; Coutinho and Henrissat 1999)) that are distinguished by differences in sequence, protein structural domains, enzymatic characteristics, and catalytic mechanisms (Moremen 2000; Moremen and Touster 1988; Moremen and Molinari 2006; Moremen et al. 1994). The ER α-glucosidases (Roth et al. 2010) and GH47 α-mannosidases (Moremen and Molinari 2006) act to trim early glycan processing intermediates to Man5GlcNAc2-Asn structures prior to the action of MGAT1, which adds a single GlcNAc residue to the α1,3 branch of the tri-mannosyl core (Schachter 1991, 2000) (Fig. 116.1). Members of GH38, including Golgi a-mannosidase II and Golgi α-mannosidase IIx, reside in the Golgi complex (Igdoural et al. 1999) and act to cleave two additional terminal mannose residues (Man-α1,3Man and Man-α1,6Man) to yield the GlcNAcMan3GlcNAc2-Asn intermediate necessary for processing to complex-type structures (Moremen 2000, 2002; Moremen and Touster 1988). Other mammalian members the GH38 family of enzymes are catabolic enzymes in lysosomes and cytosol. This chapter is focused on the Golgi processing enzyme, Golgi α-mannosidase II (also known as α1,3-(α1,6)-mannosidase II, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase I-dependent α1,3(α1,6)-mannosidase, mannosyl-oligosaccharide 1,3-1,6-α-mannosidase, and 1,3-(1,6)mannosyl-oligosaccharide α-d-mannohydrolase), and its roles in N-glycan maturation in the Golgi complex.

Keywords

Golgi Complex Glycan Structure GlcNAc Residue Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Metazoan Organism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Complex Carbohydrate Research CenterThe University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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