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Map 4: Biosynthetic Pathways of Proteoglycans

  • Pawared Ontong
  • Theerawut Chanmee
  • Naoki Itano
Reference work entry

Abstract

Proteoglycans (PGs) are comprised of one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains covalently linked to specific residues of a core protein. GAGs are long, unbranched polysaccharides containing a number of repeating disaccharide units composed of N-acetylated or N-sulfated d-hexosamine and either hexuronic acid (d-glucuronic acid or l-iduronic acid) or galactose. The major GAGs are classified by the composition of their disaccharide repeats: heparan sulfate (HS), chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and keratan sulfate (KS). CS, DS, and HS are covalently attached to the serine residues of a core protein via a common tetrasaccharide (GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl). These GAG chains are then elongated by the stepwise addition of N-acetylhexosamine and glucuronic acid residues by specific glycosyltransferase enzymes. In the case of KS, the GAGs are initiated as N-linked or O-linked oligosaccharides and extended by repeated addition of N-acetylglucosamine and galactose.

Keywords

Heparan Sulfate Chondroitin Sulfate Glucuronic Acid Dermatan Sulfate Keratan Sulfate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pawared Ontong
    • 1
  • Theerawut Chanmee
    • 1
  • Naoki Itano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biosciences, Faculty of Life SciencesKyoto Sangyo UniversityKita-KuJapan

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