Chondroitin Sulfate N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1,2 (CSGALNACT1,2)

Reference work entry


Chondroitin sulfate (CS), which is a glycosaminoglycan chain consisting of repeating disaccharide units of GalNAc and GlcA residues with sulfations at various positions, attached to proteoglycans (PG) is involved in numerous biological phenomena including neuronal development, cell differentiation, cancer metastasis, and so on. There are two types of GalNAc transferase (GalNAcT) activity involved in the biosynthesis of the glycan backbone of chondroitin sulfate. One is initiation activity termed GalNAcT-I, which catalyzes GalNAc transfer toward GlcA in the linkage tetrasaccharide (GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-) attached to a serine residue of the PG core proteins, and the other is elongation activity termed GalNAcT-II, which catalyzes GalNAc transfer toward GlcA in the repeating disaccharide unit (GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-4)n in the CS chain (Fig. 82.1). In mammals, six genes encoding glycosyltransferases and related cofactors have been identified (see Fig. 82.2 and section “Cross-References”). Chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (CSGalNAcT-1) and 2 (CSGalNAcT-2) exhibit b1,4 GalNAc-T activity of during both initiation and elongation of CS biosynthesis in vitro (Fig. 82.1). CSGalANcT-1 efficiently transfers GalNAc onto the linkage tetrasaccharide in vitro, which is common to heparan sulfate (HS)/heparin, and its initiation activity is stronger than that of CSGalNAc-T2. The knockout mouse studies found that CSGalNAcT-1 contributes to the synthesis of half the amount of the CS chains in the epiphyseal cartilages.


Chondroitin Sulfate Acceptor Substrate Epiphyseal Cartilage Elongation Activity Chondroitin Sulfate Chain 
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© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Medical Glycoscience, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)TsukubaJapan

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