Bioenergetics: Cell Motility and Chemotaxis of Extreme Alkaliphiles
Alkaliphilic microorganisms are extremophiles that actively grow in an extremely alkaline environment and generally require sodium ions for growth (Krulwich 1995; Krulwich et al. 2007). There are many interesting and unresolved issues with respect to how alkaliphilic microorganisms adapt to their extremely alkaline environment (see also Chap. 2.5 General Physiology of Alkaliphiles). The mechanisms of this adaptation have been most extensively studied in Bacillus species. Data have been presented for the roles of Na+/H+ antiporters, which are present in the cell membrane, and of a barrier of negatively charged cell wall-associated macromolecules in the accommodation of the bacteria to the alkaline environment (Aono et al. 1995; Ito et al. 2004b; Krulwich et al. 2007; Krulwich et al. 2001b; Padan et al. 2005).
KeywordsBacillus Species Proton Motive Force Alkaliphilic Bacillus Chemotaxis Protein Flagellar Motor
Work conducted in the authors’ laboratories was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (17613004) and (B) (21370074) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Sciences and Technology of Japan, and by a Grant for Basic Science Research Projects from the Sumitomo Foundation and from the Kurata Memorial Foundation for Promoting Science (to M.I.) and a JSPS Research Fellowships for Young Scientists (to N.T.).
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