Bioenergetics: Cell Motility and Chemotaxis of Extreme Alkaliphiles

  • Masahiro Ito
  • Shun Fujinami
  • Naoya Terahara


Alkaliphilic microorganisms are extremophiles that actively grow in an extremely alkaline environment and generally require sodium ions for growth (Krulwich 1995; Krulwich et al. 2007). There are many interesting and unresolved issues with respect to how alkaliphilic microorganisms adapt to their extremely alkaline environment (see also  Chap. 2.5 General Physiology of Alkaliphiles). The mechanisms of this adaptation have been most extensively studied in Bacillus species. Data have been presented for the roles of Na+/H+ antiporters, which are present in the cell membrane, and of a barrier of negatively charged cell wall-associated macromolecules in the accommodation of the bacteria to the alkaline environment (Aono et al. 1995; Ito et al. 2004b; Krulwich et al. 2007; Krulwich et al. 2001b; Padan et al. 2005).

A sodium ion circuit through the cell membrane plays a critical role for adaptation of alkaliphilic Bacillus species grown at high pH. Na +/H +antiporters can accomplish...


Bacillus Species Proton Motive Force Alkaliphilic Bacillus Chemotaxis Protein Flagellar Motor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Work conducted in the authors’ laboratories was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (17613004) and (B) (21370074) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports Sciences and Technology of Japan, and by a Grant for Basic Science Research Projects from the Sumitomo Foundation and from the Kurata Memorial Foundation for Promoting Science (to M.I.) and a JSPS Research Fellowships for Young Scientists (to N.T.).


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Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masahiro Ito
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shun Fujinami
    • 1
    • 3
  • Naoya Terahara
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Graduate School of Life SciencesToyo UniversityOura-gunJapan
  2. 2.Bio-nano Electronics Research CenterToyo UniversityKawagoeJapan
  3. 3.NITE Bioresource Information Center, Department of BiotechnologyNational Institute of Technology and EvaluationShibuya-kuJapan

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