Adaptive Mechanisms of Extreme Alkaliphiles
“Most engineers accept the ‘no free lunch’ principle, which states that any mechanism that increases robustness in one setting (i.e., to one type of perturbation, or with respect to one type of output) always compromises it in another” (Lander et 7al. 2009).
Extreme alkaliphiles, like extremophiles in general, possess numerous structural, metabolic, physiological, and bioenergetic adaptations that enable them to function well under their particular “extreme” condition or, in the case of poly-extremophiles, under several extreme conditions at once (see also Chaps. 2.1 Introduction and History of Alkaliphiles, 2.4 Anaerobic Alkaliphiles and Alkaliphilic Poly-Extremophiles). If they are facultative extremophiles, many of the adaptations are present even under non-extreme growth conditions. That is, the adaptations to the extreme condition are “hard-wired” although their expression may increase further when the bacteria confront the extreme condition(s). The...
KeywordsFree Lunch Respiratory Chain Component Secondary Cell Wall Polymer Alkaliphilic Cyanobacterium Sodium Motive Force
Work conducted in the authors’ laboratories was supported by research grant GM28454 and the Systems Biology Center-NY grant P50-GM071558 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (T.A.K) and a grant from the 21st Century Center of Excellence program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (M.I.).
- Gilmour R, Messner P, Guffanti AA, Kent R, Scheberl A, Kendrick N, Krulwich TA (2000) Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses of pH-dependent protein expression in facultatively alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 lead to characterization of an S-layer protein with a role in alkaliphily. J Bacteriol 182:5969–5981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hanhe H, Mader U, Otto A, Bonn F, Steil L, Bremer E, Hecker M, Becher D (2009) A comprehensive proteomics and transcriptomics analysis of Baciilus subtilis salt stress adaptation. J Bacteriol. doi:10.1128/JB.01106-09Google Scholar
- Horikoshi K (1991) Microorganisms in alkaline environments. VCH, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Krulwich TA, Hicks DB, Swartz TH, Ito M (2007) Bioenergetic adaptations that support alkaliphily. In: Gerday C, Glansdorff N (eds) Physiology and biochemistry of extremophiles. ASM, Washington, pp 311–329Google Scholar
- Liu X, Gong X, Hicks DB, Krulwich TA, Yu L, Yu CA (2007) Interaction between cytochrome caa 3 and F1F0-ATP synthase of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 is demonstrated by Saturation Transfer Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Differential Scanning Calorimetry assays. Biochemistry 46:306–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ma Y, Xue Y, Grant WD, Collins NC, Duckworth AW, Van Steenbergen RP, Jones BE (2004) Alkalimonas amylolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Alkalimonas delamerensis gen. nov., sp. nov., novel alkaliphilic bacteria from soda lakes in China and East Africa. Extremophiles 8:193–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Meier T, Morgner N, Matthies D, Pogoryelov D, Keis S, Cook GM, Dimroth P, Brutschy B (2007) A tridecameric c ring of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase from the thermoalkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain TA2.A1 facilitates ATP synthesis at low electrochemical proton potential. Mol Microbiol 65:1181–1192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mesbah NM, Hedrick DB, Peacock AD, Rohde M, Wiegel J (2007) Natranaerobius thermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, alkalithermophilic bacterium from soda lakes of the Wadi An Natrun, Egypt, and proposal of Natranaerobiaceae fam. nov. and Natranaerobiales ord. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 57:2507–2512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Swartz TH, Ito M, Ohira T, Natsui S, Hicks DB, Krulwich TA (2007) Catalytic properties of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus members of the Secondary Cation/Proton Antiporter-3 (Mrp) family are revealed by an optimized assay in an Escherichia coli host. J Bacteriol 189:3081–3090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Takami H, Nakasone K, Takaki Y, Maeno G, Sasaki R, Masui N, Fuji F, Hirama C, Nakamura Y, Ogasawara N, Kuhara S, Horikoshi K (2000) Complete genome sequence of the alkaliphilic bacterium Bacillus halodurans and genomic sequence comparison with Bacillus subtilis. Nucleic Acids Res 28:4317–4331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang Z, Hicks DB, Guffanti AA, Baldwin K, Krulwich TA (2004) Replacement of amino acid sequence features of a- and c-subunits of ATP synthases of alkaliphilic Bacillus with the Bacillus consensus sequence results in defective oxidative phosphorylation and non-fermentative growth at pH 10.5. J Biol Chem 279:26546–26554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yumoto I (2007) Environmental and taxonomic biodiversities of Gram-positive alkaliphiles. In: Gerday C, Glansdorff N (eds) Physiology and biochemistry of extremophiles. ASM, Washington, pp 295–310Google Scholar