• Koki Horikoshi
  • Alan T. Bull
Reference work entry

If it be true that good wine needs no bush, ‘tis true that a good play needs no epilogue. Yet to good wine they do use good bushes, and good plays prove the better by the help of good epilogues.

William Shakespeare: As You Like It. Epilogue

About 50 years ago, few microbiologists were studying microorganisms living in extreme environments. Almost all microbiologists had thought that these environments were abnormal, within which living creatures could not survive. No one conjectured that there were many microorganisms loving exotic and extreme environments while the expectation of an Extremophiles Handbook was remote if not the product of science fiction. Now, we cannot discuss biology, especially microbiology, without the knowledge of and reference to extremophiles. As the reader can see in this handbook, extremophiles have been found everywhere on Earth, and clearly they are not exotic! So now the question arises what we are going to do next?

The New Frontierssection of the...


Science Fiction Ocean Drill Program Deep Subsurface Standard Life Good Play 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Baross JA (ed) (2007) The limits of organic life in planetary systems. National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  2. Benner SA, Ricardo A, Carrigan MA (2004) Is there a common chemical model for life in the universe? Curr Opin Chem Biol 8:672–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Breaker RR (2010) RNA second messengers and riboswitches: relics from the RNA world? Microbe 5:13–20Google Scholar
  4. Cotterill FPD, Foissner W (2010) A pervasive denigration of natural history misconstrues how biodiversity inventories and taxonomy underpin scientific knowledge. Biodivers Conserv 19:291–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davies PCW, Benner SA, Cleland CE, Lineweaver CH, McKay CP, Wolfe-Simon F (2009) Signature of a shadow biosphere. Astrobiology 9:241–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dominik M, Zarnecki J (eds) (2010) The detection of extra-terrestrial life and the consequences for science and society. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A (in press)Google Scholar
  7. Gilbert W (1986) Origin of life – the RNA world. Nature 319:618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gould SJ (1996) Planet of the bacteria, vol 119. Washington Post Horizon, Washington, p 344, H1Google Scholar
  9. Horneck G (2008) The microbial case for Mars and its implications for human expeditions to Mars. Acta Astronaut 63:1015–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Joyce GF, Young R, Chang S, Clark B, Deamer D, DeVincenzi D, Ferris J, Irvine W, Kasting J, Kerridge J, Klein H, Knoll A, James Walker J (1994) Forward. In: Deamer DW, Fleischaker GR (eds) Origins of life: the central concepts. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, pp xi–xiiGoogle Scholar
  11. Lincoln TA, Joyce GF (2009) Self-sustained replication of an RNA enzyme. Science 323:1229–1232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mascarelli AL (2009) Low life. Nature 459:770–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Patel BA, Moreau M, Widom J, Chen H, Yin LF, Hua YJ, Crane BR (2009) Endogenous nitric oxide regulates the recovery of the radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans from exposure to UV light. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 106:18183–18188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Stolz JF, Basu P, Oremland RS (2010) Microbial arsenic metabolism: new twists on an old poison. Microbe 5:53–59Google Scholar
  15. Turk RM, Chumachenko NV, Yarus M (2010) Multiple translational products from a five-nucleotide ribozyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:4585–4589Google Scholar
  16. Wolfe-Simon F, Davies PCW, Anbar AD (2009) Did nature also choose arsenic? Int J Astrobiol 8:69–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)YokosukaJapan
  2. 2.School of BiosciencesUniversity of KentCanterburyUK

Personalised recommendations