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Genetics, Genomics, Evolution

  • Takuro Nunoura
  • Ken Takai
Reference work entry

Extent of Deep Biosphere as Extreme Environment

The deep biosphere is generally considered an extreme environment for organisms because of the living space limitation in sediments and rocks and the physical-chemical constraints of energy generation for life. In most parts of the biosphere, microbial growth and maintenance are sluggishly sustained by very low supplies of long-dead organic matters, reduced mineral substrates, thermally released gasses from organic and/or inorganic sources, or possible radiolytic molecular hydrogen (Fredrickson and Fletcher 2001; Colwell and Smith 2004; Blair et al. 2007). In contrast, some subsurface environments in and around fracture zones, petroleum reservoirs and subseafloor environments associated with hydrothermal activity, could provide both livable space and energy demand for prosperous formation of microbial communities. Especially in some fracture systems and the sediment-basaltic basement interface, it has been suggested that molecular oxygen...

Keywords

Acid Mine Drainage Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Petroleum Reservoir Deep Subsurface Desulfovibrio Desulfuricans 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Subsurface Geobiology & Advanced Research (SUGAR) Project, Extremobiosphere Research Program, Institute of BiogeosciencesJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science & Technology (JAMSTEC)YokosukaJapan

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