Genetics, Evolution, and Applications

  • Noriyuki Doukyu
Reference work entry

There is increasing interest in culturing microorganisms in two-liquid-phase systems consisting of an aqueous medium and a hydrophobic organic solvent. This culture is potentially advantageous for the bioconversion of hydrophobic compounds with low solubility in water. Hydrophobic organic solvents can be toxic to microorganisms. Therefore, organic solvent-tolerant microorganisms can be used as effective biocatalysts in an aqueous-organic solvent two-phase system.

The mechanisms of adaptation and tolerance toward organic solvents, particularly in Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia colistrains, have been extensively studied. These include morphological adaptation, changes of the energetic status, modification of the membrane’s fluidity, changes in the cell wall and outer membrane, modification of surface properties, transformation or degradation of the solvent, active transport of solvents from the membrane into the environment by energy-consuming efflux systems, and modification of...


Lithocholic Acid Phenol Hydroxylase Membrane Fusion Protein Toluene Dioxygenase Pseudomonas Oleovorans 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bio-Nano Electronic Research CenterToyo UniversityKawagoeJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New ScienceToyo UniversityKawagoeJapan

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