Osmoadaptation in Methanogenic Archaea: Physiology, Genetics, and Regulation in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1
Archaea are ubiquitous in nature and thus also inhabit saline environments or have to cope with changing salt concentrations in their environment (Martin et al. 1999; Achtman and Wagner 2008). Like for bacteria, the biggest challenge is to adjust the turgor and this feature may even be of more importance since a number of archaea do not have rigid outer cell surfaces such as the peptidoglycan in the Gram-positive bacteria that contributes intrinsically to salt resistance (Kandler and König 1998; Sleytr and Beveridge 1999). Most archaea also use the “compatible solute” strategy for turgor adjustment (Galinski and Trüper 1994) and have been in the focus of research since it was hoped to find new, biotechnologically interesting compatible solutes in archaea (Sowers et al. 1990; Empadinhas et al. 2001; Pflüger et al. 2003; Saum et al. 2009a). Indeed, the nature of the compatible solutes used by bacteria and archaea is different (Roeßler and Müller 2001). Generally, the...
KeywordsGlutamine Synthetase Compatible Solute Glycine Betaine Methanogenic Archaea Salt Adaptation
Generous support of the project by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Priority programme 1112) and the “Biodiversity and Climate Research Center” (Bik-F), Frankfurt, is gratefully acknowledged.
- Bakker EP (1992) Cellular K+ and K+ transport systems in procaryotes. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Becher B, Müller V, Gottschalk G (1992) The methyltetrahydromethanopterin: coenzyme M methyltransferase of Methanosarcina strain Gö1 is a primary sodium pump. FEMS Microbiol Lett 91:239–244Google Scholar
- Erdmann N, Fulda S, Hagemann M (1992) Glucosylglycerol accumulation during salt acclimation of two unicellular cyanobacteria. J Gen Microbiol 138:363–368Google Scholar
- Maeder DL, Anderson I, Brettin TS, Bruce DC, Gilna P, Han CS et al (2006) The Methanosarcina barkeri genome: comparative analysis with Methanosarcina acetivorans and Methanosarcina mazei reveals extensive rearrangement within methanosarcinal genomes. J Bacteriol 188:7922–7931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pflüger K, Baumann S, Gottschalk G, Lin W, Santos H, Müller V (2003) Lysine-2, 3-aminomutase and ß-lysine acetyltransferase genes of methanogenic archaea are salt induced and are essential for the biosynthesis of NΕ-acetyl-ß-lysine and growth at high salinity. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:6047–6055PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pflüger K, Wieland H, Müller V (2005) Osmoadaptation in methanogenic Archaea: recent insights from a genomic perspective. In: Gunde-Cimerman N, Oren A, Plemenitas A (eds) Adaptation to life at high salt concentrations in Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 241–251Google Scholar
- Pihl TD, Sharma S, Reeve JN (1994) Growth phase-dependent transcription of the genes that encode the two methyl coenzyme M reductase isoenzymes and N5-methyltetrahydromethanopterin:coenzyme M methyltransferase in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ∆ H. J Bacteriol 176:6384–6391PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saum SH, Sydow JF, Palm P, Pfeiffer F, Oesterhelt D, Müller V (2006) Biochemical and molecular characterization of the biosynthesis of glutamine and glutamate, two major compatible solutes in the moderately halophilic bacterium Halobacillus halophilus. J Bacteriol 188:6808–6815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Spanheimer R, Müller V (2008) The molecular basis of salt adaptation in Methanosarcina mazei Gö1. Arch Microbiol 190:271–279Google Scholar