Encyclopedia of Continuum Mechanics

Living Edition
| Editors: Holm Altenbach, Andreas Öchsner

Analytical and Energy-Based Methods for Penetration Mechanics

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53605-6_207-1



The terms perforation and penetration are used frequently throughout this chapter. It should however be noted that there is a significant difference between the two terms. Penetration refers to the ballistic impact of a target which results in the projectile becoming embedded or ricocheting off the target. Perforation describes the projectile impacting the target and passing completely through it. Plugging refers to the mechanical process of the formation of a plug of target material once it has been impacted by a projectile.


A comprehensive understanding of ballistic impact has been essential ever since the invention of rudimentary weapons such as the bow and arrow. There has been since then a need to develop effective means of protection such as the shield. The rapid advancement of weapon technology has led to the progress of protective...


Ballistic Limit Velocity (BLV) Petala Ductile Hole Growth Residual Velocity Free Impact 
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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Infrastructure and Environment (IIE), School of EngineeringThe University of EdinburghEdinburghUK
  2. 2.Jaguar Land Rover LimitedWhitleyUK
  3. 3.Rolls-Royce PLCFiltonUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Filipe Teixeira-Dias
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of Edinburgh - School of EngineeringEdinburghUK