Filler in Membranes
Composite perfluorosulfonic acid membranes containing different types of inorganic fillers such as hygroscopic oxides, surface-modified oxides, zeolites, inorganic proton conductors, etc. have shown an increased conductivity with respect to the bare perfluorosulfonic membranes at high temperature (Aricò et al. 1998, 2003). The presence of hygroscopic inorganic oxides inside the composite membrane besides extending the operation of perfluorosulfonic membranes (e.g., Nafion®;) in the high-temperature range reduces the crossover effects by increasing the “tortuosity factor” in the permeation path. Such effects are particularly serious at high temperature in DMFC systems. An appropriate tailoring of the surface chemistry in these nanoparticles is a key step to enhance water retention at high temperature. Composite recast Nafion®; membranes containing inorganic fillers have been employed in high-temperature (~150 °C) direct alcohol (Aricò et al. 1998) and H2-air...
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