Membrane fouling is an inevitable phenomenon in membrane processes and reduces the efficiency and the economic viability of the membrane processes. All the fouling stages such as pore blocking and cake layer not only decrease the permeate flux during a membrane process but they could influence negatively the permeate quality. Understanding the membrane fouling means that it is possible to develop a method to measure and predict the fouling potential with respect to a membrane. There is a pressing need for a reliable method able to do that.
Simple membrane experiments such as Silt Density Index (SDI) and Modified Fouling Index (MFI) are fouling index methods used to evaluate the particulate fouling potential of a feed water on reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane process (Salinas-Rodriguez SG et al. 2015). The utilization of fouling indices enables...
- ASTM, D4189-07 (2014) Standard test method for Slit Density Index (SDI) of water, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014Google Scholar
- Roorda JH, van derGraaf JHJM (2001) New parameter for monitoring fouling during ultrafiltration of WWTP effluent. Water Sci Technol 43(10):241–248Google Scholar
- Schippers JC, Verdouw J (1980) The Modified Fouling Index, a method of determining the fouling characteristic of water. Desalination 32:137–148Google Scholar