Encyclopedia of Membranes

2016 Edition
| Editors: Enrico Drioli, Lidietta Giorno

Fat Processing, Membrane Operations of

  • Angela C. Macedo
  • F. Xavier Malcata
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44324-8_224

Fat processing is an active business, designed to create added value from slaughter by-products downstream the animal chain. It encompasses activities dealing with production of animal fats (and proteins) suitable for human consumption in agreement with directive 77/99/EEC (EU 1997), as well as processing of category 3 (formerly labeled low risk) materials from animals approved for human consumption in agreement with regulation ABPR 1774/2002/EC (EU 2002). Fat processing has historically been associated with manufacture of high-grade animal fats for specific markets, e.g., bakery industry, calf milk replacers, and pet food – as well as commodities for formulation in the oleo-chemical industry (e.g., manufacture of soaps) and cosmetics; it uses bovine tallow, porcine lard, and poultry fat as major feedstocks.

The basic operations in fat processing are wet melting and dry rendering – or hybrid systems thereof. Fat tissues are subjected to relatively mild processing conditions to minimize...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Cao L (2005) Carrier-bound immobilized enzymes. Principles, application and design. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Erickson DR (1995) Practical handbook of soybean processing and utilization. American Oil Chemists Society, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  3. EU (1997) Council Directive 77/99/EEC of 21 December 1976 on health problems affecting intra-community trade in meat products. Off J Eur Commun L26Google Scholar
  4. EU (2002) Regulation (EC) No. 1774/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down health rules concerning animal by-products not intended for human consumption. Off J Eur Commun L273:1–95Google Scholar
  5. James J, Simpson BK, Marshall MR (2009) Application of enzymes in food processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36:437–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Knezevic ZD, Siler-Marinkovic SS, Mojovic LV (2004) Immobilized lipases as practical catalysts. APTEFF 35:1–280Google Scholar
  7. Vulfson EN (1994) Industrial applications of lipases. In: Woolley P, Peterson SB (eds) Lipases: their structure, biochemistry and application. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 271–288Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LEPABE – Laboratory of Engineering of Processes, Environment, Biotechnology and EnergyUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.DEQ – Department of Chemical Engineering and LEPABE – Laboratory of Engineering of Processes, Environment, Biotechnology and EnergyUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal