Ultrafiltration Membrane Bioreactor
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is the combination of a membrane process with an activated sludge bioreactor and is now widely used for municipal/domestic and industrial wastewater treatment. Pressure-driven membrane separation is usually applied in MBR processes even though other novel membrane separation systems (e.g., forward osmosis membrane) have been developed. Typical pressure-driven filtration types that could be used in MBRs include dynamic membrane filtration, microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), and nanofiltration (NF) (Wang et al. 2008; Meng et al. 2009), while MF and UF membranes are commonly used (Wang et al. 2008). MBRs using UF membrane can be termed as ultrafiltration MBRs.
In UF processes, suspended solids and solutes of large molecular weight present in feed solutions (e.g., water and wastewater) are retained while water and low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane and flow into...